Fagonia cretica Linn.
SynonymF. arabica Linn. (Correct
name for Indian sp. isFagonia
schweifurthiiHadidi. F. bruguieri
DC. is not a synonym ofF. cretica,
according to CDRI.)
HabitatWestern India, upper
Gangetic plains and Peninsular
Kachhuraa, Anantaa, Duhsparshaa.
(Alhagi pseudalhagi is used as
a substitute forF. cretica.)
blood-purifier and febrifuge.
Applied to abscesses, scrofulous
glands and wounds; also given
as a prophylactic against smallpox.
Bark—used for dermatosis
Extract of aerial parts—antiviral,
Plant ash—given to children
suffering from anaemia.
The aerial parts contain several triterpenoid
saponins which gave sapogenin,
nahagenin, oleanolic acid.
Aerial parts also gave diterpenes, fagonone
and its derivatives, besides
Theflavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol,
isolated from the leaves and
flowers, showed antimicrobial activity.
The fruits are rich in ascorbic acid.
DosageWhole plant—– ml
HabitatNative to Central Asia;
now grown as minor grain-crop in
hilly regions of North India and the
ActionUsed for treating fragile
capillaries, chilbains and for
strengthening varicose veins. Used
at a supporting herb for treating high
blood pressure. Rutin is obtained
from fresh or dried leaves and
flowers. (Rutin is used in a variety
of haemorrhagic conditions.)
The seed are commonly used in colic,
choleraic diarrhoea and abdominal
obstructions. Root decoction is used
in rheumatic pains, lung diseases and
typhoid; juice in urinary disorders. In
China, used in pulmonary sepsis.
The plant is used as a venous and
capillary tonic, and for alleviating venous
stasis and vericose veins.
It is a potential source of rutin (yield
–%). The leaves and blossoms contain
most of the rutin (–%).
260Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.
Quercetin caused significant decrease
in ulcer index in acute gastric
ulcer with respect to control group in
rats. Quercetin, rutin or kaempferol
inhibited, in dose-dependent manner,
gastric damage produced by acidifiedethanol
The plant also gave hyperoside and
Buckwheat is a good source of lysine
and other amino acids. The flour
is reported to repress exogenous hypercholesterolemia
and promotes accumulation
of triglyceride in the liver
Seed oil exhibits antimicrobial activity
againstBacillus anthrasis, E.coli and
Whole plant, dried or green, can
HabitatCultivated in the Himalayas,
especially in the colder
parts of Ladakh, Zaskar and
ActionSee F. esculentum. Duckwheat
is a better source of rutin
than the common Buckwheat.
It contains –% more rutin
than the latter, and maintains its
high rutin content for a longer
HabitatCooler regions of northern
hemisphere. Distributed in Kulu
and the Nilgiris.
EnglishEuropean Beech, Common
ActionSeeds and fatty oil—
used externally in skin diseases,
rheumatism and gout. Seeds—
poisonous. Saponins cause severe
gastrointestinal symptoms. Leaves
also contain saponins. Wood tar—
antiseptic, analgesic; mixed with
talc, used as a dusting powder for
gangrene and bed sores.
eastwards to India and southwards
to tropical Africa.
Farsetiaspecies contain a volatile oil
which gave glucosinolates. Allylglucosinolate
is the major constituent.
HabitatRajasthan and Northwestern
parts of India.
Ferula foetidaRegel. 261
SynonymAcca sellowiana Berg.
HabitatIndigenous to western
Paraguay, southern Brazil, Uruguay
and parts of Argentina; cultivated
in South India in Nilgiris and
EnglishFeijoa, Pineapple Guava,
New Zealand Banana.
ActionThe fruit contains iodine
and vitamin C. Iodine content varies
according to locality and fluctuates
from year to year, usual range is
.–. mg/kg Fruit also contains
vitamin P-active polyphenols. The
fruit is found beneficial only in mild
cases of thyrotoxicosis.
Feronia limonia(Linn.) Swingle.
SynonymF. elephantum Corr.
HabitatIndigenous to South India;
cultivated throughout the plains of
India up to m in the western
carminative, stimulates the digestive
system bark. Pulp is included in
a paste to tone the breast. Leaves—
astringent; used for indigestion,
flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery and
Unripe fruit—prescribed in sprue,
malabsorption syndrome. (The Ayurvedic
Pharmacopoeia of India.)
Theleaves and stembark contain the
coumarins, luvangetin, xanthotoxin
and limonin and the steroids, sitosterol
Antifungal compounds, psoralene
from stem bark; xanthotoxin and osthenol
from root bark and ,-dimethoxybenzo-
quinone from the fruit shell
are reported. Roots contain xanthotoxin
and bergapten, used for the treatment
of leucoderma, characterized by
DosageDried pulp of mature
fruit—– g powder. (API Vol. II.)
SynonymF. assafoetida Linn.
HabitatNative to Iran, Afghanistan
and Pakistan.F. narthex occurs in
Raamattha, Baahlika, Jatuka,
the intestinal and respiratory
262Ferula galbaniflua Boiss. ex Buhse.
tracts and the nervous system bark.
Used for simple digestive problems
such as bloating, indigestion,
constipation; for congested mucus,
bronchitis, whooping cough, also
for neurological affections, epilepsy,
cramps and convulsions.
Key applicationIn dyspepsia,
chronic, gastritis, irritable colon;
as spasmolytic. (The British Herbal
in bleeding disorders, pregnancy,
infectious or inflammatory G
diseases. (Sharon M. Herr.)
Ferula foetidacontains: resins about
–%, consisting of asaresionotannols
and their esters; farnesiferols,
ferulic acid and other acids; about
% gum; about –% volatile oil,
major constituent being sec-propenylisobutyl
disulphide; sulphated terpenes,
pinene, cadinene and vanillin;
sesquiterpenoid coumarins. Some
compounds fromFerula sp. ehibit antifertility
resin—– mg. (API
Boiss. ex Buhse.
SynonymF. gummosa Boiss.
HabitatNative to Persia. Occasionally
(Galbanum has been wrongly
equated with Gandhbirozaa, the
oleo-resin of Pine.)
stimulant, antispasmodic; used
for flatulence and colic; as an
expectorant; and as a uterine tonic.
Ferula gummosacontains resinuous
substances (%), major constituents
being galbaresenic and galbanic acids;
volatile oil (–%) containing monoand
sesquiterpenes, alcohols and acetates;
azulenes; thiol esters; undecatriens;
resinic acids (–%); gums;
HabitatJammu and Kashmir and
Himachal Pradesh from , to
Being investigated as
a potential contraceptive. A related
species,F. silphion, was used in
ancient Rome as a contraceptive.
The oil extracted from the leaves
possesses mycotoxic property against
The ethanolic extract of the aerial
parts produced dilation and congestion
and hypertrophy in liver in rats.
The roots contain sesquiterpenoids.
A coumarin, ferujol, isolated from the
rhizome, showed abortifacient and
anti-implantation activity at a single
Ficus arnottianaMiq. 263
dose of . mg/kg in rats by oral administration
in a suspension of gum
acacia. The essential oil shows antimycotic
ActionThe gum-resin is used as
The oil is reported to be bacteriocidal.
It exhibited antimicrobial activity
against Gram-positive and Gramnegative
The essential oil, obtained from
seeds, shows antioxidant activity comparable
The plant gave coumarin derivatives
including umbelliferone and scopoletin.
HabitatNative to Arabia and
ActionResin—less strong than
asafoetida; used in the same way as
asafoetida and galbanum. Used in
Middle East for rheumatic affections
Ferula sumbulHook. f.
HabitatNative to Central Asia.
ActionUsed as a sedative in hysteria
and other nervous disorders.
Also used as a mild gastrointestinal
used for asthma, bronchitis and
Ferula sumbulcontains .–.%
volatile oil; –% resin; hydroxycoumarins
sumbulic and angelic acids.
HabitatAssam, eastwards to
AyurvedicNandi vrksha (var),
ActionLeaves and bark—used in
skin diseases. The tree is one of
the recorded hosts of the Indian lac
264Ficus asperrima Roxb.
HabitatCultivated in Rajsthan,
Madhya Pradesh, Bihar andWestern
AyurvedicNandi Vriksha, Prarohi,
Gajapaadapa, Paarasa Pipala.
sterilizer, given to women after
menses. Leaves and bark—used in
DosageBark—– ml decoction.
HabitatMadhya Pradesh and
ActionJuice of bark—iven for
enlargement of liver and spleen.
HabitatSub-Himalayan tract and
Peninsular India. Planted along
roadsides, and in gardens.
ActionInfusion of bark—sed
in diabetes, dysentery, and in
seminal weakness, leucorrhoea,
menorrhagia, nervous disorders,
erysipelas, burning sensation. Milky
juice and seeds—pplied topically
to sores, ulcers, cracked soles of
the feet, rheumatic inflammations.
Buds— decoction in milk is given
in haemorrhages. Aerial roots—antiemetic, topically applied to
pimples. Leaves— paste is applied
externally to abscesses and wounds
for promoting suppuration.
Along with other therapeutic applications,
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia
of Indiarecommends the aerial root in
Phytosterolin, isolated from the
roots, given orally to fasting rabbits
at a dose of mg/kg, produced maximum
fall in blood sugar level equivalent
to %of the tolbutamide standard
after h. The root bark showed antidiabetic
activity in pituitary diabetes and
The alcoholic extract of the stem
bark also exhibited antidiabetic activity
on alloxan-induced diabetes in
albino rats, and brought down the
level of serum cholesterol and blood
urea. This activity is attributed to
a glucoside, bengalenoside and the
flavonoid glycosides, leucocyanidin
and leucopelargonidin. Bengalenoside
is half as potent as tolbutamide. The
leucopelargonidin glycoside is practically
nontoxic and may be useful in
controlling diabetes with hyperlipidemia.
The leucocyanidin, when combined
with a low dose of insulin, not
only equalled in response the effects
Ficus cordifoliaRoxb. 265
brought about by a double dose of insulin,
but also excelled in amelioration
of serum cholesterol and triglycerides.
(Additional references:Indian J
Physiol Pharmacol, , (), –; J Ethnopharmacol, , (), –; Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, ,
HabitatThe Eastern Himalaya,
Assam, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh,
kerala and the Andaman Islands.
SiddhaMalai Ichi, Pon Ichi,
ActionDiuretic. Leaves—decoction, mixed with oil, is applied
The fruits gave bergapten. The latex,
in addition to bergapten, gave alphaamyrin
HabitatNative to the Mediterranean
region; now cultivated in
Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab,
Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
and expectorant. Syrup of figs—a remedy for mild constipation.
Fruit pulp-analgesic and antiinflammatory,
used for treating
tumours, swellings and gum
abscesses. Latex—nalgesic and
toxic. Used for treating warts, insect
bites and stings. Leaf—sed in
lucoderma. Bark—sed for eczema
and other skin diseases.
Key applicationAs a laxative.
(Included among unapproved herbs
byGerman Commission E.)
The leaves gave bergapten, psoralen,
taraxasterol, beta-sitosterol, rutin and
a sapogenin. Calotropenyl acetate, lepeol
acetate and oleanolic acid have been
identified in the leaves.
Three peptides which exhibit action
against angiotensin I-converting enzyme
(ACE) have been isolated from
the fresh latex. Their inhibitory activity
is similar to that of ACE inhibitors
derived from casein. (ACE catalyzes
both the production of vasoconstrictor
angiotensin II and the inactivation of
the vasodilator bradykinin.)
DosageFruit—– ml juice; – g paste. (CCRAS.)
SynonymF. rumphii Bl.
HabitatThroughout India, up to
, m in the hills.
266Ficus cunia Buch.-Ham.
FolkGajanaa, Ashtaa, Paakar.
ActionFruit juice and latex—antiasthmatic and vermifuge.
SynonymF. semicordata Buch.-
Ham. ex Sm.
HabitatSub-Himalayan tract from
Chenab eastward to Bhutan and in
Assam, Bengal and Orissa.
ActionSee F. carica. Fruits—spasmolytic; used in aphthous
complaints. Root—sed for
bladder and visceral troubles.
Bark-decoction—sed for washing
ulcers; juice and powdered bark—applied to wounds and bruises.
Syconium—sed for ulcers of
mucous membrane. Syconium and
The tree is one of the recorded hosts
of the Indian lac insect.
Siddha/TamilKal Aal, Pei Aal.
and bark—sed in affections of the
liver and skin diseases.
Ficus heterophyllaLinn. f.
HabitatThroughout the warmer
parts of India.
ActionFruits—sed for constipation
during fevers. Leaf-juice—antidysenteric. Root bark—ixed
with water, given internally in
coryza, asthma and bronchial
Ficus hispidaLinn. f.
SynonymF. daemona Koen. ex
HabitatOuter Himalaya from
Chenab eastwards to West Bengal
Assam, Central and South India
and the Andaman Islands.
Kaashtodumbara, Phalgu, Malayu,
Siddha/TamilPeyatti, Chona Atthi.
Bark and seed—urgative, emetic.
Ficus palmataForsk. 267
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
recommends the fruit in jaundice,
oedema and anaemia; fruit and root in
The fruits, seeds and bark contain
acetate, gluacol acetate,
hispidin, a phenanthraindolizidine alkaloid,
bergapten and psoralen. A leucocyanin
has been isolated from the
root; oleanolic acid from the leaves.
DosageFruit—– g; root—– g powder. (API Vol. III.)
SynonymF. infectoria auct. non-
HabitatPlains and lower hills of
AyurvedicPlaksha, Karpari, Pitana,
ActionBark—ecoction is used
for washing ulcers, as a gargle in
salivation; also used for menstrual
disorders and leucorrhoea. Leaf—estrogenic. Plant—used in
erysipelas, ulcer, epistaxis.
Fresh ripe fruit or powder of dried
fruits is used to treat diabetes.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
indicates the use of the fruit and
stem bark in syncope, delirium and illusive
and unstable state of mind.
The stem bark of the plant yield acetates
of long-chain alcohols, methylricinolate,
caffeic acid, bergenin and sugars. The
triterpenoids, lupeol and alpha- and
beta-amyrin, are also present in the
leaves. Flavonoids including sorbifolin
and scutellarein derivatives, have been
isolated from the leaves.
DosageStem bark— g powder
for decoction (API Vol. II); dried
fruit—– g. (API Vol. IV.) Leaf,
root—– g paste. (CCRAS.)
Ficus microcarpaLinn. f.
SynonymF. retusa auct. non Linn.
HabitatWestBengal, Bihar, Central
and Peninsular India and Andaman
Islands. Grown in gardens, and as
an avenue tree. Quite common in
AyurvedicPlaksha (related sp.).
ActionBark—ntibilious. Leaf—antispasmodic. Root bark and leaf—used in preparations of oils and
ointments for ulcers, skin diseases,
oedema and inflammations.
SynonymF. caricoides Roxb.
F. virgataWall. ex Roxb.
268Ficus racemosa Linn.
HabitatNorth-western India and
Rajasthan, from Kashmir eastward
to Nepal, ascending to , m.
laxative. Latex is applied on
pimples. Ripe fruits—ypotensive.
Leaves gave bergapten and betasitosterol.
SynonymF. glomerata Roxb.
HabitatThroughout India. Grows
wild in forests and hills. Often
found around subterranean water
EnglishCluster Fig, Country Fig.
ActionAstringent and antiseptic;
used in threatened abortions,
menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, urinary
disorders, skin diseases, swellings,
boils, haemorrhages. Unripe
digestive, stomachic; used in diarrhoea,
menorrhagia and haemorrhages.
Ripe fruits—ntiemetic, also
used in haemoptysis. Root and
fruit—ypoglycaemic. Bark—decoction is used in skin diseases,
inflammations, boils and
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
recommends the use of the bark in
lipid disorders and obesity.
Leaves and fruit contain gluacol.
The fruit also contains beta-sitosterol,
lupeol acetate, friedelin, higher hydrocarbons
and other phytosterols.
Petroleum ether extract of the stem
bark significantly reduced blood sugar
level of rats with streptozotocininduced
diabetes. It completely inhibited
from rat liver. Extracts of fruit
and latex did not show any significant
effect on blood sugar level of diabetic
rats, they inhibited only glucose--
phosphate but not arginase from rat
An alcoholic extract of the bark has
been found to be very effective in reducing
blood sugar in alloxan-induced
diabetic albino rats. It helped in improving
the damaged beta cells of islets
of Langerhans, thus exerting permanent
blood sugar lowering effect.
The ethanolic extract of seeds also
showed hypoglycaemic activity.
Lignin, the main fiber constituent
of the fruit, prevented the rise in
serumcholesterol levels of someextent.
Fresh whole fruits, used as a source of
dietary fibre, exhibited more hypocholesterolemic
activity than pure cellulose.
DosageBark—– g for
decoction. (API Vol. I.)
Flacourita indica(Burm. f.)Merr. 269
West Bengal, Central and South
India; planted throughout India as
an avenue tree.
Bodhivrkisha, Sebya, Chalapatra,
alterative, laxative, haemostatic,
vaginal disinfectant (used in
diabetes, diarrhoea, leucorrhoea,
menorrhagia, nervous disorders;
also in skin diseases.) Applied
externally on unhealthy ulcers
and wounds. Leaves and twigs—laxative.
Thebark contains beta-sitosteryl-Dglucoside.
methyl oleanolate, lanosterol, stigmasterol,
lupen--one are reported from
the stem bark.
Ahypoglycaemic response is reported
for beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside obtained
from the bark.
Aerial roots are given to women, also
used in prescriptions, for inducing
conception. The dried fruits are used
as a uterine tonic.
The fruits contain .% protein having
the essential amino acids, isoleucine
and phenylalanine. The chloroform
extract of fruits exhibited antitumour
and antibacterial activities in
Various plant parts are included
in formulations used for menorrhagia,
metrorrhagia, blood dysentery,
bleeding piles, haematuria and haemorrhages.
DosageBark, fruit—– ml
Ficus talbotiiG. King.
AyurvedicPlaksha (related species).
Siddha/TamilItthi, Kal Itthi.
ActionBark—ntileprotic (used for
ulcers and venereal diseases). Aerial
parts exhibit diuretic, spasmolytic,
CNS depressant and hypothermic
SynonymF. monostachya Hassk.
regions of India, as a weed.
equated withF. annua.)
ActionUsed in adenitis, scrofula,
syphilis; also in cough, bronchitis
Flacourita indica(Burm. f.)Merr.
SynonymF. ramontchi L'erit.
270Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch.
HabitatCultivated in Assam,
Maharashtra and Bengal.
Plum, Mauritius Plum, Governor'
FolkPoniol (Assam), Kataaya,
as a gargle. Applied to eczema and
skin diseases. Bark—ntidysenteric,
astringent, diuretic. Seed—antirheumatic. Fruit—tomachic.
Root—pplied externally in skin
diseases. Leaves and young shoots—astringent and stomachic.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
recommends the use of the leaf and
stem bark in jaundice, oedema and diseases
due to vitiated blood.
The bark contains a phenolic glucoside
ester, (−)-flacourtin. The heartwood
contains the steroid, ramontoside,
beta-sitosterol and its beta-Dglucopyranoside.
The fruits contain .–.% protein,
vitamin C and mineral matter
.%; calcium . and phosphorus
. mg/ g. Fruits are given in jaundice
and enlarged spleen.
DosageLeaf—– g for
decoction. (API Vol. IV.) (Also
SynonymF. cataphracta Roxb.
HabitatBengal, Assam, Orissa,
Andhra Pradesh and Eastern Ghats.
Paaniyaamalaka. (Taalispatri (Hindi),
Taalispatra (Gujarati), Taalisam
(Malyalaam), Taalispatramu (Telugu)
are confusing synonyms of
UnaniTaalisfar, Nabaq Hindi,
Zarnab. InNational Formulary of
Unani Medicine, Zarnab, synonym
Telispattar, is equated withF.
catapracta, also with Cinnamonum
tamalaNees.(Zarnab is also equated
withSalix aegyptiaca Sprengel and
anthapogon D. Donor R. lipidotum
by Unani scholars.)
antidiarrhoeal, stomachic. Used
in chronic bronchitis. Fruit—sed
in affections of the liver. Bark and
fruit—ntibilious. Infusion of bark
is used as a gargle. Fruits contain
(dry basis) protein .%; vitamin C
, Ca , K , P , Fe , Mg
mg/ g.The fruit stembark and
bark yielded a coumarin, ostruthin,
and limonoids, jangomolide and
(Taalisha, Taalisam, Taalisapatri,
Taalisapatra—ll the synonyms are
now equated with Abies spectabilis
(D.Don) Spach.,synonym A. webbiana
Lindl.,Pinus webbiana Wall.)
Foeniculum vulgareMill. 271
HabitatKumaon and n the dry
forests of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and
species), Kinkini (provisional
ActionThe bark of the plant,
triturated in sesame oil, is used as
liniment in gout and rheumatism.
HabitatNative to the Mediterranean
region; now cultivated
mainly in Punjab, Assam, Maharashtra
and Vadodara (Gujarat).
EnglishFennel. (Poison hemlock
has been misidentified as fennel.)
AyurvedicMishreyaa, Mishi, Madhurikaa,
Shataahvaa. (Shatpushpaa is equated
with Saunf and Shataahvaa with
Soyaa. Some authors treat these as
diuretic. Relieves bloating, nausea,
settles stomach and stimulates
appetite. Also used in amenorrhoea
Key applicationIn dyspepsias such
as mild, spastic, gastrointestinal
afflictions, fullness, flatulence.
Fennel syrup or honey can be
used for the catarrh of the upper
respiratory tract in children. Fennel
oil preparations not recommended
during pregnancy. (German
Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.)
German Commission Ereported that
fennel seed promotes gastrointestinal
motility and in higher concentrations
acts as antispasmodic. In
experiments anethole and fenchone
have been shown to have a secretolytic
action in respiratory tract.The
British Herbal Pharmacopoeiaand Indian
Herbal Pharmacopoeiareport its
carminative and spasmolytic property.
Fennel seed contain about % volatile
oil (about –%anethole, among
others –% fenchone and methylchavicol),
flavonoids, coumarins (including
bergapten) and sterols.
The extract of seeds inhibits the
growth of micro-organism, especially
Streptococcus mutans, that are responsible
for dental caries and periodontal
The essential oil from the seed is reported
to be antibacterial, antifungal,
antioxidant, emmenagogue, oxytocic
The fatty acid, petroselenic acid, obtained
from the oil, exhibited antimicrobial
Anethole, amajor constituent of fennel
seed/oil has been found to be an
active estrogenic agent with minimal
hepatotoxicity and no teratogenic effect.
272Fraxinus griffithii Clarke.
The oil also exhibits anticarcinogenic
activity and can be used as a chemoprotective
It possesses antioxidant activity close
Anethole and limonene are used in
pharmaceutical compositions for decreasing
the side effects of chemotherapy
and increasing the immune function.
Limonene showed the capacity to inhibit
mammary tumours in rats.
The boiling water extract of leaves
shows hypotensive effect in rats.
The methanolic extract of seed
showed antispasmodic activity, while
aqueous extract accelerated the spontaneous
movement of rabbit stomach.
DosageDried fruit—– g powder.
(API Vol. I.)
ActionToxic to CNS.
Theextract of the bark and leaves are
used as an adulterant of illegal opium
and are sold in the black market in
certain areas in Indonesia.
The bark contains an iridoid glucoside,
ligstroside, and the phenolic
glucosides, syringin and sinapaldehyde
SynonymF. excelsior auct. non L.
HabitatF. excelsior Linn.—reat
Britain, Europe and North America.
F. hookery—estern Himalaya at
EnglishEuropean Ash, Weeping
FolkKum, Sum, Hum, Sinnun
ActionF. excelsior—axative, antiinflammatory,
febrifuge. The bark
and leaves are used for arthritis and
The herb gave coumarin derivatives,
including fraxin, fraxetin and fraxinol;
flavonoids based on aesculetin, including
aescin, also rutin and quercetin.
A coumarin derivative is actively diuretic.
A saccharine exudate, manna, consisting
principally of mannitol, is obtained
by incising the stem barks of
someFraxinus sp. found in India. The
manna of commerce is derived from
F. ornus. F. hookery(bark)—stringent,
febrifuge, bitter tonic. Leaves—athartic.
Ash Bark is used, in decoction, in
the treatment of intermittent fever and
ague, as a substitute for Peruvian bark.
Also used for treating obstructions of
the liver and spleen and in rheumatism
and arthritic affections.
Preparations of European Ash Bark
showed an analgesic, anti-exudative
and antiphlogistic action. (German
Fucus vesiculosusLinn. 273
HabitatIndigenous to the coasts
of the Mediterranean from Spain to
ActionA children' laxative.
Usually prescribed with other
purgatives. (Not to be used in the
presence of ileus.)
Key applicationIn constipation
where an easier elimination and
a soft stool are desirable; in
animents such as anal fissures,
haemorrhoids and post-rectal and
surgery. (German Commission E.)
The exudation contains –%
mannitol, –% stachyose and mannotriose,
Fritillaria cirrhosaD. Don.
HabitatCentral and Western
Himalaya between , and
for bronchitis and tuberculosis.
HabitatKashmir at ,–, m.
EnglishCrown Imperial, Imperial
resolvent, spasmolytic, hypotensive,
The bulbs contain steroidal alkaloids—ebeinone, eduardine, edpetilidine,
verticinone, isoverticine and
isobaimonidine and pimaradienic diterpene,
Ebeinone exhibited anticholinergic
Himalaya fromKashmir to Kumaon
at ,–, m.
ActionUsed in the treatment of
asthma, bronchitis and tuberculosis.
(Withania somnifera is a substitute
for Kaakoli and Kshira-Kaakoli.)
The bulbs gave alkaloids—eimine,
peimisine, peimiphine, perminine,
permidine and permitidine. The bulbs
also gave neutral compounds—ropeimin
and a sterol. The plant gave kashmirine.
DosageBulb—– g powder.
FamilyFucaceae. (Laminaria sp.)
HabitatOn the shores of the
United Kingdom, North Atlantic
Ocean, North Pacific Coast of
America; as a weed; found in Indian
Ocean on theManora Rocks. Allied
species—F. distichus Linn., and F.
274Fumaria officinalis Linn.
nodosusLinn. (Included in Glossary
of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR,
also in its second supplement.)F.
nodosusis found in India along sea
EnglishBladderwrack, Black Tang,
ActionWeed—ne of the richest
source of minerals, chiefly iodine,
sodium, manganese, sulphur, silicon,
zinc and copper. Effective
against obesity, antirheumatic.
Stimulates circulation of lymph.
Endocrine gland stimulant. Allays
onset of arteriosclerosis by
maintaining elasticity of walls of
blood vessels. Mild diuretic, bulk,
laxative, antibiotic. High sodium
content may reduce effectiveness of
(The herb contains trace metal, particularly
iodine from.–.%. Itmay
contain waste metals such as cadmium
and strontium,when grownin a polluted
environment. Variable iodine content
and arsenic contamination make
the herb unsafe.)
The herb should be used with caution
in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
Excess thyroid activitymay be
aggravated by the iodine content of the
herb; it may disrupt thyroid function.
One gramof Bladderwrack might contain
asmuch as mcg iodine (Ingesting
more than mcg iodine per day
may cause hyperthyroidism or exacerbate
existing hyperthyroidism.) (NaturalMedicines
Due to the antithrombin effects of its
fucan polysaccharides, consumption of
the herb in cases of G bleeding disorders
(Included among unapproved herbs
byGerman Commission E.)
HabitatNative to Europe and
North America. Found at high
altitudes in Nilgiris and Salem
AyurvedicParpata (related species).
amphicholeretic. Stimulant to liver
and gall bladder; used for eczema
and other skin diseases. Also
diuretic and mild laxative.
Key applicationIn spastic discomforts
in the area of gallbladder
and bile ducts, as well as the
gastrointestinal tract. (German
Commission E, The British Herbal
The herb contains indenobenzazepine
alkaloids—umaritrin and fumarofine.
Other alkaloids include (−)-scoulerine,
protopine, fumaricine, (+)-fumariline.
The plant also contain rutin,
fumaric acid and hydroxycinnamic
Protopine exhibits antihistaminic,
hypotensive, bradycardic and sedative
activity in small doses, but excitation
and convulsions in large doses. (NaturalMedicines
Fumaria vaillantiiLoisel. 275
The seed oil contains myristic .,
palmitic ., stearic ., oleic .,
linoleic . and linolenic acid .%.
Theupper flowering part of the herb
is used for biliary disorders, various
skin diseases and fevers. The herb can
also treat arteriosclerosis by helping in
lowering blood cholesterol level and
improving the elasticity of arterial wall.
SynonymF. indica (Haussk.)
HabitatAt high altitudes in
Tamil Nadu; up to , m on the
Varatikta, Renu, Kavacha,
The plant contains isoquinoline alkaloids—including protopine, sanguinarine,
fumaramine. The leaves
contain kaempferol and quercetin glycosides.
DosageWhole plant—– g (API
Vol. IV); – g powder; – ml
HabitatThroughout India on the
ActionThe plant is used as
a substitute forFumaria parviflora.
A decoction of the herb is used for
blood purification and in skin diseases,
Methanolic extract of the plant exhibits
antimicrobial activity against
The herb contains several isoquinoline
alkaloids which are common to
Fumaria officinalisand Fumaria parviflora.
Protopine showed smooth muscle
relaxant activity in guinea-pigs, rabbits
and albino rats and hydrocholeretic activity
in anaesthetized dogs. L-tetrahydrocoptisine
(neuroleptic) activity in albino rats and
mice. Narceimine, narlumidine, adlumidine
and protopine nitrate exhibit
Alkaloids, narlumidine and protopine,
exhibit significant antifungal