Sunday, June 7, 2009


Jacaranda acutifolia

auct. non-Humb. & Bonpl.

Synonym J. mimosifolia D. Don

J. ovalifolia R. Br.

Family Bignoniaceae.

Habitat Cultivated in Indian


Folk Nili-gulmohar.

Action Leaves' volatile oil—applied

to buboes. Leaves and bark of

the plant—used for syphilis and

blennorrhagia. An infusion of the

bark is employed as a lotion for


The leaves contain jacaranone, verbascoside

and phenylacetic-beta-glucoside

along with a glucose ester, jacaranose.

Flavonoid scutellarein and

its -glucuronide, and hydroquinones

were also isolated. Fruits contain betasitosterol,

ursolic acid and hentriacontane;

stem bark gave lupenone and


The flowers contain an anthocyanin.

In Pakistan, the flowers are sold as a

substitute for the Unani herb Gul-e-


The lyophylized aqueous extract of

the stem showed a high and broad

antimicrobial activity against human

urinary tract bacteria, especially Pseudomonas


The fatty acid, jacarandic acid, isolated

from the seed oil, was found to

be a strong inhibitor of prostaglandin

biosynthesis in sheep.

J. rhombifolia G. F. W. May., syn.

J. filicifolia D. Don is grown in Indian

gardens. Extracts of the plant show

insecticidal properties.

Several species of Jacaranda are used

for syphilis in Brazil and other parts

of South America under the names

carobin, carabinha etc. A crystalline

substance, carobin, besides resins,

acids and caroba balsam, has been

isolated from them.

Jasminum angustifolium Vahl.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat South India.

English Wild Jasmine.

Ayurvedic Bana-mallikaa, Vanamalli,

Kaanan-mallikaa, Aasphotaa.

Siddha/Tamil Kaatumalli.

Action Root—used in ringworm.

Leaves—juice is given as an emetic

in cases of poisoning.

Fresh flowers gave indole.

Jasminum arborescens Roxb.

Synonym J. roxburghianum Wall.

Habitat Sub-Himalayan tract,

Bengal, Central and South India.

English Tree Jasmine.

Ayurvedic Nava-mallikaa.

Siddha/Tamil Nagamalli.


342 Jasminum auriculatum Vahl.

Folk Chameli (var.), Maalati (var.).

Action Leaves—astringent and

stomachic. Juice of the leaves, with

pepper, garlic and other stimulants,

is used as an emetic in obstruction

of the bronchial tubes due to viscid


Jasminum auriculatum Vahl.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Cultivated throughout

India, especially in Uttar Pradesh

and Tamil Nadu. In Uttar Pradesh,

cultivated on commercial scale in

Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Farrukhabad

and Kannauj for its fragrant flowers

which yield an essential oil.

Ayurvedic Yuuthikaa, Yuuthi,


Siddha/Tamil Usimalligai.

Folk Juuhi.

Action See Jasminum humile.

The leaves gave lupeol, its epimer,

hentriacontane and n-tricantanol,

a triterpenoid, jasminol; d-mannitol;

volatile constituent, jasmone. The pin

type pointed flower buds (long styled)

on solvent extraction yielded higher

concrete content rich in indole and

methyl anthranilate, whereas thrum

type (short styled) buds yield higher

absolute with benzyl acetate as the

prominent constituent.

Jasminum flexile Vahl.

Synonym J. azoricum Linn.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Assam, Mizoram,

Meghalaya and Western Ghats.

Ayurvedic Maalati (var.).

Siddha/Tamil Ramabanam mullai.

Folk Chameli (var.).

Action See Jasminum officinale.

Jasminum heterophyllum

Roxb. non-Moench.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Nepal, North Bengal,

Assam hills, Khasi hills and


Ayurvedic Svarna-yuuthikaa (var.).

Folk Juuhi (yellow var.).

Action See Jasminum humile.

Jasminum humile Linn.

Synonym J. humile auct. non L.

J. bignoniaceum Wall ex G. Don.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Sub-tropical Himalayas

from Kashmir to Nepal and in the

Nilgiris, Palni Hills, Western Ghats

and Kerala.

English Yellow Jasmine, Nepal

Jasmine, Italian Jasmine.

Ayurvedic Svarna-yuuthikaa,

Svarnajaati, Hemapushpikaa,


Siddha/Tamil Semmalligai.

Folk Juuhi (yellow var.).


Jasminum officinale Linn. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kobuski. 343

Action Flower—astringent, cardiac

tonic. Root—used in ringworm.

The milky juice, exuded from

incisions in the bark, is used for

treating chronic fistulas. The plant

is also used for treating hard lumps.

The leaves gave alpha-amyrin, betulin,

friedelin, lupeol, betulinic, oleanolic

and ursolic acids; beta-sitosterol,


(jasminoside) and a secoiridoid


Jasminum malabaricum Wight.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Deccan, West Coast,

Western Ghats and in the Nilgiris.

Ayurvedic Mudgara.

Folk Mogaraa (var.), Ran-mogaraa.

Action See Jasminum sambac.

Jasminum multiflorum

(Burm. f.) Andr.

Synonym J. pubescens Willd.

J. hirsutum Willd.

J. bracteatum Roxb.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Sub-Himalayan tract and

in moist forests of Western Ghats.

English Downy Jasmine.

Ayurvedic Kunda, KasturiMogaraa.

Siddha/Tamil Magarandam, Malli.

Folk Kasturi Mogaraa.

Action Diuretic, emetic. Boiled

bark—applied on burns.

Ethanolic extract of fresh leaves

and flowers contain the secoiridoid

lactones, jasmolactone A, B, C and

D; and secoiridoid glycosides. Jasmolactone

B and D and the secoiridoid

glycosides (multifloroside and

-hydroxyoleuropein) exhibited vasodilatory

and cardiotropic activities.

Jasminum officinale Linn. var.

grandiflorum (L.) Kobuski.

Synonym J. grandiflorum Linn.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat North-Western Himalayas

and Persia; cultivated in Kumaon,

Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya

Pradesh; in gardens throughout


English Spanish Jasmine.

Ayurvedic Jaati, Jaatikaa, Jaatimalli,

Pravaaljaati, Saumanasyaayani,

Sumanaa, Chetikaa, Hriddgandhaa,

Maalati, Chameli.

Unani Yaasmin.

Siddha/Tamil Manmadabanam,

Mullai, Padar-malligai, Pichi, Malli

Folk Chameli.

Action Flowers—calming and

sedative, CNS depressant, astringent

and mild anaesthetic. A syrup

prepared from the flowers is

used for coughs, hoarsenesses

and other disorders of the chest.

Plant—diuretic, anthelmintic,

emmenagogue; used for healing

chronic ulcers and skin diseases.

Oil—externally relaxing.


344 Jasminum rottlerianum Wall. ex DC.

Indian oil sample gave benzyl acetate

., benzyl benzoate ., phytol

., jasmone ., methyl jasmonate

., linalool ., geranyl linalool .,

eugenol ., isophytyl acetate ., and

isophytol .%.

The leaves gave ascorbic acid, anthranilic

acid and its glucoside, indole

oxygenase, alkaloid jasminine and salicylic


The flowers contain pyridine and

nicotinate derivatives; tested positive

for indole.

The flowers and leaf juice is used for

treating tumours.

Dosage Dried leaves—– g

powder for decoction (API, Vol.

III.); Juice—– ml. (CCRAS.).

Jasminum rottlerianum

Wall. ex DC.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Western Peninsula, from

Konkan southwards to Kerala.

Ayurvedic Vana-mallikaa.

Siddha/Tamil Erumaimullai,

Kattumalligei, Uyyakondan.

Action Leaf—used in eczema.

Jasminum sambac (Linn.) Ait.

Family Oleaceae.

Habitat Cultivated throughout

India, especially in Uttar Pradesh,

on a large scale in Jaunpur, Kannauj,

Ghazipur and Farrukhabad for its

fragrant flowers.

English Arabian Jasmine, Tuscan

Jasmine, Double Jasmine.

Ayurvedic Mallikaa, Madayanti,

Madyantikaa, Nava-Mallikaa,

Shita-bhiru, Vaarshiki.

Unani Mograa.

Siddha Malligai.

Folk Belaa, Motiaabelaa; Mogaraa


Action Root—emmenagogue,

blood purifier. Flowers—lactifuge.

Alcoholic extract—hypotensive.

Leaves—antibacterial; used against

indolent and breast tumours.

The leaves contain the secoiridoid

glycosides, jasminin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin,

rutin, quercitrin--dirhamnoglycoside,


mannitol, alpha-amyrin,

beta-sitosterol and an iridoid glycoside,

sambacin. The absolute contains

several pyridine and nicotinate derivatives.

Dosage Decoction—– ml.


Jateorhiza palmata Miers.

Synonym J. calumba Miers.

Family Menispermaceae.

Habitat Indigenous to south-east

tropical Africa. Imported into


English Calumba, Colombo.

Ayurvedic Kalambaka. (Coscinium

fenestratum Colebr., known as False

calumba, is used as a substitute for

J. palmata.)


Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. 345

Siddha/Tamil Kolumbu.

Action Root—bitter tonic without

astringency, carminative, gastric

tonic, antiflatulent, hyptotensive,

orexigenic, uterine stimulant,

sedative. Used in anorexia,

poor digestion, hypochlorhydria,

amoebic dysentery and menstrual

disorders. Antifungal.

Key application As appetite

stimulant. (The British Herbal


The root gave isoquinoline alkaloids

–%; palmatine, jaterorrhizine and its

dimer bis-jateorrhizine, columbamine;

bitters (including chasmanthin and

palmanin). Volatile oil contains thymol.

The alkaloid jateorrhizine is sedative,

hypotensive. Palmatine is a uterine


As calumba contains very little volatile

oil and no tannins, it is free fromastringency

which is common with other

bitter herbs.

The root alkaloids exhibit narcotic

properties and side effects similar

to morphine. It is no longer used

(in Western herbal) as a digestive aid,

and is rarely used as an antidiarrhoeal

agent. (Natural Medicines Comprehensive

Database, .)

Jatropha curcas Linn.

Family Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat Native to tropical

America. Now cultivated along

with Cromandel Coast and in


English Physic Nut, Purging Nut.

Ayurvedic Vyaaghrairanda (var.),

Sthula-eranda, Kaanan-eranda.

Siddha/Tamil Kattu Amanaku.

Folk Bagharenda (var.).

Action Seed—highly toxic. Nut—

purgative. Plant—used for scabies,

ringworm, eczema, whitlow, warts,

syphilis. Stem bark—applied to

wounds of animal bites; root bark

to sores.

The protein of the seed contains the

toxic albumin curcin (protein .%,

curcin .%).

Seed and seed oil—more drastic

purgative than castor seed oil and

milder than Croton tiglium oil.

An aqueous (%) infusion of leaves

increased cardiac contraction is small

doses. EtOH (%) extract of aerial

parts—diuretic and CNS depressant.

The seed contain phorbol derivatives.

The plant also contains curcosones

and lathyrane diterpenes.

Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.

Family Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat South India and Bengal.

Ayurvedic Vyaaghrairanda.

Siddha/Tamil Adalai, Eliyamanakku.

Folk Bagharenda, Jangali-erandi.

Action Root and oil from seed—

purgative. Oil—antirheumatic,

antiparalytic. Used externally on

ringworm and chronic ulcers.

Root—used for glandular swellings.


346 Jatropha gossypifolia Linn.

Latex—applied to warts and


The plant contain alkannins (isohexenylnaphthazarins).

The presence

of alkannins in this plant (amember of

Euphorbiaceae) should be considered

as an exception.

The root gave jatropholone A, fraxetin

and a coumarinolignan.

Dosage Seed—– mg powder.


Jatropha gossypifolia Linn.

Family Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat Native to Brazil; cultivated

as an ornamental.

English Tua-Tua.

Ayurvedic Rakta-Vyaaghrairanda.

Siddha/Tamil Stalai.

Folk Laal Bagharenda.

Action Leaf and seed—purgative.

Leaf—antidermatosis. Bark—

emmenagogue. Seed—emetic.

Seed fatty oil—used in paralytic

affections, also in skin diseases.

The leaves contain triterpenes, a trihydroxy

ketone and corresponding

diosphenol. The root contains the

diterpenes, jatropholone A and jatrophatrione.

A tumour-inhibitor macrocyclic

diterpene, jatrophone, has

been isolated from roots.

The seeds contain phorbol derivatives,

jatropholones A and B, hydroxyjatrophone

and hydroxyisojatrophone.

Hot water extract of the plant exhibits

antimalarial activity against Plasmodium


Jatropha multifida Linn.

Family Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat Native to South America.

Naturalized in various parts of


English Coral plant, Physic Nut.

Ayurvedic Brihat-Danti (bigger

var. of Danti, also equated with

Baliospermum montanum).

Folk Danti (var.).

Action Seeds—purgative, emetic.

Fruits—poisonous. Leaves—used

for scabies. Latex—applied to

wounds and ulcers.

The latex from the plant showed antibacterial

activity against Staphylococcus

aureus. It contains immunologically

active acylphloroglucinols, multifidol,

phloroglucinol and multifidol

beta-D-glucopyranoside. The latex also

contains an immunologically active,

cyclic decapeptide, labaditin.

J. panduraefolia Andr. (native to

America), widely grown in Indian gardens,

is known as Fiddle-leaved Jatropha.

The latex from the plant shows

fungitoxic activity against ringworm

fungus, Microsporum gypseum.

Juglans regia Linn.

Family Juglandaceae.

Habitat Native to Iran; now

cultivated in Kashmir, Himachal

Pradesh., Khasi Hills and the hills

of Uttar Pradesh.

English Walnut tree.


Juncus effusus Linn. 347

Ayurvedic Akshoda, Akshodaka,

Akshota, Shailbhava, Pilu,

Karparaal, Vrantphala.

Unani Akhrot.

Siddha/Tamil Akrottu.

Action Leaves and bark—

alterative, laxative, antiseptic, mild

hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory,

antiscrofula, detergent. An infusion

of leaves and bark is used for

herpes, eczema and other cutaneous

affections; externally to skin

eruptions and ulcers. Volatile oil—

antifungal, antimicrobial.

Key application (leaf) In mild,

superficial inflammation of the skin

and excessive perspiration of hands

and feet. (German Commission E.).

When English Walnuts (Juglans

regia) are added to low fat diet, total

cholesterol may be decreased by –

% and LDL by –%. (Natural

Medicines Comprehensive Database,


Walnut hull preparations are used

for skin diseases and abscesses.

Walnut is eaten as a dry fruit. Because

of its resemblance to the brain,

it was thought, according to the "doctrine

of signatures", to be a good brain

tonic. Walnuts are also eaten to lower

the cholesterol levels.

From the volatile oil of the leaves

terpenoid substances (monoterpenes,

sesquiterpenes, diterpene and triterpene

derivatives) and eugenol have

been isolated. Fatty acids, including

geranic acid; alpha-and beta-pinene,

,,cincole, limonene, beta-eudesmol

and juglone are also important constituents

of the volatile oil.

The leaves contain napthoquinones,

mainly juglone. The root bark gave

, ,-bis-juglone and oligomeric juglones.

Unripe fruit husk also gave


The kernels of Indian walnuts contain

.% protein, % carbohydrates,

.% mineral matter (sodium, potassium,

calcium, magnesium, iron, copper,

phosphorus, sulphur and chorine).

Iodine (. mcg/ g), arsenic, zinc,

cobalt and manganese are also reported.

Kernels are also rich in vitamins of

the B group, vitamin A ( IU/ g),

and ascorbic acid (mg/ g).

The juice of unripe fruits showed

significant thyroid hormone enhancing

activity (prolonged use of such extract

may cause serious side effect).

WhiteWalnut, LemonWalnut, Butternut,

Oilnut of the USA is equated

with Juglans cineraria L. The inner

bark gave napthoquinones, including

juglone, juglandin, juglandic acid, tannins

and an essential oil.

Butternut is used as a dermatological

and antihaemorrhoidal agent. Juglone

exhibits antimicrobial, antiparasitic

and antineoplastic activities.

Dosage Dried cotyledons—– g

(API, Vol. II.)

Juncus effusus Linn.

Synonym J. communis E. Mey.

Family Juncaceae.

Habitat Eastern Himalayas and

Khasi Hills.

English Rush, Matting Rush.


348 Juniperus communis Linn. var. saxatillis Palias.

Action Pith—antilithic, discutient,

diuretic, depurative, pectoral.

Root—diuretic, especially in


Theleaves gave flavonoids, lutcoline-

-glucoside, diosmin and hesperidin;

aerial parts gave phenolic constituents,

effusol and juncusol. Juncusol is antimicrobial.

A dihydrodibenzoxepin,

isolated from the plant, showed cytotoxic


Juniperus communis Linn. var.

saxatillis Palias.

Synonym J. communis auct. non L.

Family Pinaceae; Cupressaceae.

Habitat Native to Europe and

North America. Distributed in

Western Himalayas from Kumaon

westwards at ,–, m.

English Common Juniper.

Ayurvedic Hapushaa, Havushaa,

Haauber, Matsyagandha.

Unani Abahal, Haauber, Hubb-ularar,


Action Berries—diuretic, urinary

antiseptic, carminative, digestive,

sudorific, anti-inflammatory,

emmenagogue. Used for acute and

chronic cystitis, renal suppression

(scanty micturition), catarrh

of the bladder, albuminuria,

amenorrhoea, leucorrhoea. Aerial


Key application In dyspepsia.

(German Commission E.) Juniper

berry may increase glucose levels in

diabetics. (ESCOP.) As a diuretic.

(The BritishHerbal Pharmacopoeia.)

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of

India recommends the dried fruit

in malabsorption syndrome.

Animal studies have shown an increase

in urine excretion as well as a direct

effect on soothmuscle contraction.

(GermanCommission E, ESCOP.)Contraindicated

in kidney disease. (Sharon

M. Herr.)

(InKerala,Hapushaa andMundi are

considered to be synonyms; Syphaeranthus

indicus,Asteraceae, is used as


The major constituents of the volatile

oil are alpha-pinene, sabinene and

alpha-terpinene. Methanolic extract

of the plant gave several labdane diterpenoids

and diterpenes. The leaves

contain the biflavones, cupressuflavone,

amentoflavone, hinokiflavone,

isocryptomerin and sciadopitysin. The

berries also contain condensed tannins.

Seeds gave haemagglutinin.

Juniperus recurva Buch-Ham ex D.

Don, syn. J. excelsa auct. non-Bieb.

(temperate Himalaya from Kashmir to

Bhutan) is known asWeeping Blue Juniper.

J. macropoda Boiss. (the Himalaya

fromNepal onwards) is known

as Himalayan Indian Juniper. Both

the species are used like J. communis

var. saxatillis.

The berries gave a diterpene ketone,

sugrol, beta-sitosterol glucoside and


Plant extract can be used in toothpastes

andmouth-rinses to reduce dental

plaque and bleeding.

Dosage Dried fruit—– g powder.

(API, Vol. III.)


Justicia betonica Linn. 349

Juniperus virginiana Linn.

Family Pinaceae; Cupressaceae.

Habitat Native to North America;

introduced into India.

English Pencil Cedar, Red Cedar.

Action The berries in decoction are

diaphoretic and emmenagogue like

those of common juniper; leaves

are diuretic. Red cedar oil is used

in the preparation of insecticides.

Small excrescences, called cedar

apples, are sometimes found on

the branches. These are used as

an anthelmintic. (Yellow Cedar is

equated withThuja occidentalles.)

Juniperus procera Hochst. (East

African Cedar), J. bermudiana Linn.

(BermudaCedar) andJ.ChinensisLinn.

(Chinese Juniper) have also been introduced

into India.

Jurinea macrocephala Benth.

Synonym J. dolomiacea Boiss.

Family Compositae; Asteraceae.

Habitat The Himalayas from

Kashmir to Kumaon.

Ayurvedic Jaatukanda, Gugguluka.

Folk Guugal, Dhuup.

Action Roots—used as incense.

Stimulant, given in colic, also in

fever after child birth. Bruised roots

are applied to eruptions.

The alcoholic extract of the root

inhibits about % growth of NK

strain of Plasmodium berghei at a dose

of  g/kg per day in  days.

Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn.

Synonym Ludwigia octovalvis

(Jacq.) Raven.

Oenothera octovalis Jacq.

Family Onagraceae.

Habitat A native of the NewWorld;

found in marshy fields in India.

Ayurvedic Jala-lavanga, Bhuulavanga,


Siddha/Tamil Nirkkrambu.

Action Cooling, diuretic, astringent,

mild laxative. Used in

catarrhal affections of children;

applied externally for burns and

scalds. Pulp of the plant, steeped

in buttermilk, is used for dysentery.


Jussiaea tenella Burm. f.

Synonym J. linifolia Vahl.

J. fissendocarpa Haines.

Family Onagraceae.

Habitat Watery and swampy places

in Bihar and Orissa and in some

parts of South India.

Ayurvedic Jala-lavanga (var.).

Action See J. suffruticosa.

An infusion of the root is given in

syphilis.The plant isemployed in poultice

for pimples.

Justicia betonica Linn.

Family Acanthaceae.


350 Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.

Habitat Throughout greater parts

of India, in waste lands, hedges and

rocky ravines.

Siddha/Tamil Velimungil.

Folk Had-paata (Bihar), Pramehaharati,

Mokandar. (Madhya


Action Plant—used in diarrhoea;

externally for swellings and boils.

Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.

Synonym Gendarussa vulgaris


Family Acanthaceae.

Habitat Throughout the greater

part of India and Andaman


Ayurvedic Krishna Vaasaa (blue

var.), Nila-nirgundi, Krishnanirgundi,


Siddha/Tamil Karunochhi,


Action Febrifuge, diaphoretic,

emetic, emmenagogue. Infusion of

leaves—given internally in cephalalgia,

hemiplegia and facial paralysis.

Fresh leaves—used topically in

oedema and rheumatism. Bark—


The leaves contain beta-sitosterol,

an alkaloid, lupeol, friedelin and aromatic


Justicia procumbens Linn.

Family Acanthaceae.

Habitat WesternGhats,West Coast

from Konkan to Kerala; abundant

in the rainy season.

Ayurvedic Parpata (substitute).

Action The plant contains

naphthofuranones, justicidin A,

B, C, D, G and H, and diphyllin,

which are used for the treatment of

osteoporosis. The flowers contain

peonidine glucoside. Essential oil—


Justica tranquebariensis Linn. f.

Family Acanthaceae.

Habitat Deccan, Mysore southwards.

Folk Sivanarvembu (Tamil Nadu).

Action Leaves—cooling, aperient;

given for smallpox to children,

bruised leaves applied to contusions.

The alcoholic extract of the aerial

parts yielded several lignans, phytosterols,

brassicasterol, campesterol,

,-ergostadienol, stigmasterol, sitosterol,

spinasterol, -isofucostil and

a sterol glucoside, beta-sitosterol--Oglucoside.

Justica vasculosa Wall. (Eastern Himalayas,

Assam Khasi Hills) is also

used for inflammations.

1 comment:

  1. Juncusol is a 9,10-dihydrophrenathrene found in Juncus species with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Juncusol