Sunday, June 7, 2009


Kadsura heteroclita

(Roxb.) Craib.

Synonym K. roxburghiana Arn. K.

wightiana Arn.

Family Magnoliaceae.

Habitat Eastern Himalaya, Assam,

Western Ghats in Malabar.

Folk Pattiamlo, Salado-rik

(Himalayas). Kang-mari, Mi-jangew,

Theiarbawm (Assam).

Action The stems have been

used in Chinese folk medicine

to promote blood circulation

and for the treatment of gastric

and duodenal ulcer, acute and

chronic gastroenteritis, postpartum

abdominal pain and trauma.

The stem contains dibenzocyclooctadiene

type lignans. The plant lignans

showed PAF (platelet activating

factor) receptor antagonistic activity.

The lignans have also been reported

to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation

in rat liver. The fruit contains

gomisin D, which is an active ingredient

of an antiulcer agent.

Kaempferia galanga Linn.

Family Zingiberaceae.

Habitat Throughout the plains of

India, cultivated in gardens.

English Galanga, Maraba.

Ayurvedic Sugandha-vachaa,

Chandramuula, Chandramuulikaa.

(In Kerala, used as Karchura

and Shathi.) (Kapurakachari is

a different drug, equated with

Hedychium spicatum.)

Siddha/Tamil Kachoram.

Action Tuber—stimulant, carminative,

expectorant, diuretic used

for respiratory ailments like cough,

bronchitis and asthma.

Theessential oil fromrhizomes contain

n-pentadecane, ethyl-p-methoxy

cinnamate, ethyl cinnamate, carene,

camphene, borneol, p-methoxystyrene,

p-methoxy cinnamate, p-methoxy-

trans-cinnamic acid and cin

namaldehyde. Insecticidal activity of

the oil is attributed to ethyl cinnamates.


shows monoamine oxidase inhibitor

activity and a cytotoxic principle (the

rhizomes exhibit cytotoxic activity).

Leaves and flowers exhibit antiphlogistic

and vitamin P activity. Ethyl-pmethoxy-

trans cinnamate is the main

compound in the root.

Kaempferia rotunda Linn.

Family Zingiberaceae.

Habitat Throughout India in wet

or humid shaded areas.

Ayurvedic Bhuumi-champaka,

Bhuu-champaka, Hallakam.

Siddha/Tamil Karunkuvalai.


352 Kalanchoe integra (Medic.) Kuntze.

Folk Bhui-champaa.

Action Tuber—antitumour. Used

for swellings (removes blood clot),

mumps and wounds.

Tubers gave crotepoxide and betasitosterol.

The oil contained chavicol,


Kalanchoe integra

(Medic.) Kuntze.

Synonym K. brasiliensis Cambress.

K. spathulata Roxb.

Family Crassulaceae.

Habitat Tropical Himalayas from

Kashmir to Bhutan, on Lushai hills

and in the Deccan.

Ayurvedic Parnabija (var.).

Unani Zakhm-e-Hayaat.

Folk Rungru, Tatara. Bakalpattaa,

Patkuari (Kumaon). Hathokane


Action Plant—hypotensive,


Aqueous extract of the leaves depressed

CNS and potentiated barbiturate-

induced hypnosis in mice.

The flowers yielded triterpenoids—

friedelin, taraxerol and glutinol and

a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons,

n-alkanols and sterols. Kaempferol

and its -O-rhamnoside, patuletin and

patuletin-, -di-O-rhamnoside, quercetin

and quercetin--O-glucoside-

-O-rhamnoside are reported from

leaves and flowers.

The leaves exhibit wound healing


Kalanchoe laciniata (Linn.) DC.

Synonym K. schweinfurthii Penzig.

Cotyledon laciniata Roxb.

Family Crassulaceae.

Habitat Maharashtra, Deccan and


Ayurvedic Parnabija (var.),


Unani Zakhm-e-Hayaat.

Siddha/Tamil Malakalli.

Folk Hemasaagar.

Action Plant—used in fever,

dyspepsia, skin allergy, asthma,

bronchitis. Leaves—astringent,

antiseptic, astringent. Applied to

insect bites. Lotions are used for

smallpox. Leaf juice is given in

diarrhoea, dysentery, lithiasis.

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.

Synonym Bryophyllum pinnatum

(Lam.) Oken.

B. calycinum Salisb.

Family Crassulaceae.

Habitat Throughout the warm

and moist parts of India, especially

abundant in West Bengal.

Ayurvedic Parnabija, Pattharchuur,

Pattharchat, Hemsaagar. (Paashaanabheda

is a misleading synonym.)

Unani Zakhm-e-Hayaat.

Siddha/Tamil Runakalli.

Action Leaf—anti-inflammatory,

antifungal, antibacterial. Applied to

wounds, burns, boils, swellings.


Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. 353

The methanolic extract of leaves exhibited

potent anti-inflammatory activity

against both exudative and proliferative

phases of inflammation. The

leaf extract also showed analgesic activity.

The leaves gave flavonoids—quercetin,

kaempferol, quercetin--diarabinoside

and kaempferol--glucoside; also

n-hentriacontane, n-tritriacontane,

alpha- and beta-amyrin and sitosterol;

p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic, caffeic

and p-hydroxybenzoic acids.

Kandelia rheedii Wight & Arn.

Synonym K. candel (L.) Druce.

Family Rhizophoraceae.

Habitat Costal forests of eastern and

western Peninsulas, the Sunderbans

(West Bengal).

Siddha/Tamil Thuvar kandan.

Folk Rasunia (Orissa), Guria


Action Bark—used with ginger

or long pepper and rose water

for diabetes (aqueous or alcoholic

extracts of the bark did not exhibit

any effect on the blood sugar of

normal or alloxan-diabetic rabbits).

The Bark contains .% tannin and

.% non-tans. Novel proanthocyanidin

dimers and trimers—ll containing

a phenylpropionoid substituent in

the upper flavan unit, along with propelargonidin

dimers and procyanidin

trimers of common types, have been

isolated from the bark.

Kedrostis foetidissima

(Jacq.) Cogn.

Synonym K. rostrata (Rottl.) Cogn.

Bryonia rostrata Rottl.

Rhynghocarpa foetida Clarke

Family Cucurbitacease.

Habitat Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,

Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and

Tamil Nadu.

Folk Appakovay (Tamil Nadu).

Kukumadona, Nagadonda (Andhra

Pradesh) Nurakvel (Maharashtra).

Action Root and fruit—demulcent;

used in asthma and piles.

Khaya senegalensis A. Juss.

Synonym Melia dubia Cav.

Family Meliaceae.

Habitat Native to South Africa.

Planted in forest nurseries and

plantation at Pune and Vada


English African Mahogany.

Action Anti-inflammatory,


Methanolic extract of the stem bark

showed cardiovascular (cardiogenic)

effect in rodents by increasing blood

pressure and vasoconstriction of the

arota partly due to the stimulation

of beta-receptors and alpha-adrenoceptors.

Alcoholic extract of the stem bark

showed anti-inflammatory activity.


354 Kigelia pinnata (Jacq.) DC.

Kigelia pinnata (Jacq.) DC.

Synonym K. africana (Lam.) Benth.

Family Bignoniaceae.

Habitat Native to West Africa,

cultivated as a roadside tree.

English Common Sausage tree.

Folk Jhaar Phaanuus.

Action Bark—antidysenteric,

antirheumatic, diuretic. Used

in venereal diseases. Fruits—


The root bark contains monoterpenoids,

pinnatal, isopinnatal and isokigelinol


The fruit gave a cytostatic compound.

In Africa, the root bark is used in the

treatment of venereal diseases, haemorrhoids

and rheumatism; also as a vermifuge.

Kingiodendron pinnatum

(Roxb. ex DC.) Harms.

Synonym Hardwickia pinnata

Roxb. ex DC.

Family Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat Hills of Tamil Nadu,

Karnataka and Kerala.

English Piney.

Ayurvedic Samparni.

Siddha/Tamil Kodapalai, Madayansambrani.

Action Oleo-gum-resin—used

in catarrhal conditions of the

genitourinary and respiratory

tracts; also for treating sores.

Theoleo-gum-resin contains monoterpenes

and diterpenes—hardwickiic,

kolavic, kolavenic acids and kolavenol.

Kirganelia reticulata (Poir) Baill.

Synonym Phyllanthus reticulatus


Family Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat All over India; also grown

as a hedge plant.

Ayurvedic Kaamboji.

Folk Panjuli.

Action Plant—spasmolytic,

hypotensive, antiviral. Fruit—

astringent, used in inflammations.

Leaves—astringent, antidiarrhoeal,

diuretic. Root bark—astringent,

attenuant, diuretic.

The leaves contain beta-sitosterol,

friedelin and its derivatives, glochidonol

and betulinic acid. Betulin,

glochidonol, friedelin, octacosanol,

taraxeryl acetate, taraxerone and betasitosterol

are obtained from the root.

Kleinhovia hospita Linn.

Family Sterculiaceae.

Habitat Grown in Indian gardens

and as an avenue tree.

Folk Panuitteku (Tamil Nadu). Bol


Action Bark and leaves—used

in the treatment of cough and



Kydia calycina Roxb. 355

The roots contain kaempferol, quercetin

and rutin.

Knema angustifolia

(Roxb.) Warb.

Synonym Myristica gibbosa

Hook. f.

Family Myristicaceae.

Habitat Sikkim Himalayas, Assam.

Folk Motaa-pasuti (Assam),

Ramguwaa (Nepal).

Action Kino—astringent; used

for dysentery; topically applied to

mouth sores.

Kino contains .% tannin and resembles

kino from Pterocarpus marsupium

is appearance.

Kochia indica Wt.

Family Chenopodiaceae.

Habitat North-western and

Peninsular India.

Folk Bui-chholi (Punjab). Kauraro.

Action Cardiac stimulant.

Resinous alkaloid, isolated from alcoholic

extract of the plant, showed

nicotinic action on autonomic ganglion

and neuromuscular junction of

voluntary muscles.

Fruits and leaves of a related sp., K.

scoparia Schrad are used as a cardiac

tonic and diuretic.

Petroleum ether extract of aerial

parts contain n-alkanes, free alcohols

and a mixture of sterols (mainly sitosterol,


The plant exhibits antibacterial activity

which is attributed to hydrocarbons

and sterols present in it. Theplant

is also used as an ingredient of amedicinal

powder used for dermatitis.

Krameria triandra Ruiz & Pav.

Family Krameriaceae.

Habitat Peru, Bolivia. Reported to

be imported into India.

English Peruvian Rhatany,


Action Astringent, styptic,

antidiarrhoeal, vulnerary. Used for

menorrhagia; topically for wounds,

haemorrhoids and chilblains; as

a lozenge, gargle or mouthwash for

gingivitis and pharyngitis.

Key application For topical

treatment of mild inflammations

of oral and pharyngeal mucosa.

(German Commission E.)

Theastringency of the drug is due to

condensed tannins composed of procyanidins

and propelargondins.

In India, the roots of Hemidesmus

indicus are sometimes used as a substitute

for Rhatany.

Kydia calycina Roxb.

Family Malvaceae.

Habitat Common in sub-

Himalayan tract.

Folk Pola, Pulu, Pula, Polao. Vendi

(Tamil Nadu). Potri, Konda Potari,

Pandiki, Pachabotuka (Andhra


356 Kyllinga triceps Rottb.

Pradesh). Velukku, Venta, Nedunar


Action Plant—mucilaginous, antiinflammatory,

febrifuge. Leaf and

root—antirheumatic. The leaves

stimulate saliva. A paste of leaves

is applied in body pains, used in

poultices for skin diseases.

Kyllinga triceps Rottb.

Synonym K. tenuifolia Stend.

Cyperus triceps (Rottb.) Endl.

Family Cyperaceae.

Habitat Northwestern India,

Gujarat, Rajasthan and South India.

Ayurvedic Nirvishaa (var.) Mustaka

(var.), Apivisha.

Folk Mustu (Maharashtra).

Action Root—febrifuge and

antidermatosis. Also used for


Kyllinga monocephala Rottb., synonym

Cyperus kyllinga Endl., common

throughout India, is also known

as Nirvishaa, Nirbishi and Mustaa

(var.). The root is used as diuretic (in

polyuria), demulcent, refrigerant and

antipyretic. It is prescribed for fistula,

pustules, tumours, measles, diarrhoea

and other intestinal affections.

Traces of hydrocyanic acid are reported

to be present in the root, stems

and nutlets.

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