Sunday, June 7, 2009


Quassia indica Nooteboom.

Synonym Samadera indica Gaertn.

S. indica var. lucida Blatter.

S. lucida Wall.

Family Simaroubaceae.

Habitat West Coast, along

back waters and evergreen forests

from Maharashtra southwards to


English Niepa Bark tree.

Siddha/Tamil Nibam, Niepa,


Folk Lokhandi (Maharashtra).

Action Bark—febrifuge; juice

applied to skin diseases. An

infusion of wood and bark is

given as emmenagogue. Seed—

emetic, purgative; used for bilious

fevers. Seed oil—applied in

rheumatism. Leaves— externally in


The bark contains the quassinoids,

indaquassin, A, D, E and F; samaderine

B to E, dihydrosamaderine B, brucein

D, soulameolide, cedronin and

canthin-, -dione.

Brucin D showed activity against

Walker's carcinoma. Samaderine E,

isolated from the plant, exhibits antileukaemic


Quercus ilex Linn.

Family Fagaceae.

Habitat The Himalayas, from

the Sutlej valley westwards and

in Kashmir at altitudes of –

, m.

English Holly or Holm Oak.

Ayurvedic Maayaaphala (var.)


Action Leaves—antioxidant.

Galls—contain % tannin. The

bark contains –%; leaves .%

tannin and .% non-tannin.

Theleaves contain alpha-tocopherol

as main antioxidant. Themature leaves

contain proanthocyanidins ., and

leucoanthocyanidins . mg/g (on dry

matter basis).

Quercus incana Roxb.

Synonym Q. leucotrichophora A.

Camus ex Bhadur.

Family Fagaceae.

Habitat Kashmir and Western

Himalayas up to Nepal at altitudes

of ,–, m.

English Grey Oak.

Unani Baloot.

Folk Shilaa Supaari (Kashmir),

Phanat (Garhwal), Shiddar



532 Quercus infectoria Oliv.

Action Acrons—diuretic, astringent.

Used in indigestion and

diarrhoea (after removing tannin

and associated substances by the

process of germination under

earth). Also used in gonorrhoea.

The bark contains –% of tannin.

The stem bark contains friedelin, a triterpenoid,

beta-sitosterol and a mixture

of leucoanthocyanidins (including

leucopelargonidin). Leaves contain

flavonoids— quercetin, quercetin-


The kernels gave fatty acids, including

palmitic, lignoceric and oleic.

Quercus infectoria Oliv.

Family Fagaceae.

Habitat Indigenous to Greece,

Syria and Iran. Yields oak galls.

English Oak galls, Aleppo galls,

Mecca galls.

Ayurvedic Maajuphalaka,

Maayaaphala, Maayakku.

Unani Maazu. Maaphal.

Siddha/Tamil Maasikkaai.

Action Astringent. Bark and

fruits—used for eczema and

impetigo. Galls—used for diseases

of gums and oral cavity (diluted

with toothpowder or paste; also as

a gargle in nasal catarrh and sore

throat. An ointment ( in  parts

of vaseline) is applied externally in

haemorrhoids. Also included in

breast and vaginal firming creams.

A decoction of galls is used as an

enema in prolapus of rectum.

Key application Quercus robur L.

bark—externally, in inflammatory

skin diseases; internally in nonspecific,

acute diarrhoea, and local

treatment of mild inflammation

of the oral cavity and pharyngeal

region, as well as of genital and anal

area. (German Commission E.)

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India

recommends the gall in leucorrhoea,

dry and itching vagina; topically

for dental inflammations.

The fruits gave amentoflavone hexamethyl

ether, isocryptomerin and


The alcoholic extract of fruits

showed % liver protection against

carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

at a dose of  mg/kg.

The galls contain –% gallo tannic

acid, gallic acid –%, ellagic acid,

nyctanthic acid, rubric acid, besides

sugars, starch, an essential oil and anthocyanins.

Galls were also found to

contain beta-sitosterol, amentoflavone,

hexamethyl ether and isocryptomerin.

Quercus robur (English or European

oak) is reported to be cultivated in Nilgiris.

The bark contains –% tannins

consisting of phlobatannin, ellagitannins

and gallic acid.

The bark is contraindicated in cardiac

insufficiency and hypertonia; externally

on broken skin. (Sharon M.


Dosage Gall—– g powder. (API,

Vol. IV.)

Quillaja saponaria Molina.

Family Rosaceae.


Quisqualis indica Linn. 533

Habitat Indigenous to Chile

and Peru; introduced in India in


English Soap Bark, Quillaia Bark.

Action Bark—cutaneous stimulant.

Its liquid extract is used as a lotion

for certain skin diseases of the scalp,

and in antiulcer preparations.

The detergent and medicinal properties

of quillaia are due to the presence

of haemolytic saponins (–%) of

which quillaia-saponin (which yields

glucuronic acid and quillaic acid, a sapogenin,

on hydrolysis) ismost important.

Quillaja extracts caused marked

swelling and haemorrhage in stomach

and small intestines of mice after

 hours.

An isolated saponin (QS-) from

the bark shows evidence that it might

augment both antibody and cell-mediated

immune response, significantly

increasing antibody levels. (NaturalMedicines



Quisqualis indica Linn.

Family Combretaceae.

Habitat Native to Java and

Malaysia; cultivated in Indian


English Rangoon Creeper.

Ayurvedic Rangoon-ki-Bel.

Siddha/Tamil Irangunmalli.

Folk Laal-chameli.

Action Fruits and seeds—

anthelmintic (particularly against

ascarites and soporific). Seeds—

soporific. Ripe seeds are roasted

and given in diarrhoea and fever.

Macerated in oil, are applied to

parasitic skin diseases. Leaves—

decoction prescribed in abdominal


The leaves and flowers gave rutin

and pelargonidin--glucoside, quisqualic

acid, trigonelline, L-proline and


Quisqualic acid showed anthelmintic

activity. Seeds gave arachidic, linoleic,

oleic, palmitic and stearic acids.

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