SynonymSamadera indica Gaertn.
S. indicavar. lucida Blatter.
HabitatWest Coast, along
back waters and evergreen forests
from Maharashtra southwards to
EnglishNiepa Bark tree.
applied to skin diseases. An
infusion of wood and bark is
given as emmenagogue. Seed—
emetic, purgative; used for bilious
fevers. Seed oil—applied in
rheumatism. Leaves— externally in
The bark contains the quassinoids,
indaquassin, A, D, E and F; samaderine
B to E, dihydrosamaderine B, brucein
D, soulameolide, cedronin and
Brucin D showed activity against
Walker's carcinoma. Samaderine E,
isolated from the plant, exhibits antileukaemic
HabitatThe Himalayas, from
the Sutlej valley westwards and
in Kashmir at altitudes of –
EnglishHolly or Holm Oak.
Galls—contain % tannin. The
bark contains –%; leaves .%
tannin and .% non-tannin.
Theleaves contain alpha-tocopherol
as main antioxidant. Themature leaves
contain proanthocyanidins ., and
leucoanthocyanidins . mg/g (on dry
SynonymQ. leucotrichophora A.
Camus ex Bhadur.
HabitatKashmir and Western
Himalayas up to Nepal at altitudes
of ,–, m.
FolkShilaa Supaari (Kashmir),
Phanat (Garhwal), Shiddar
532Quercus infectoria Oliv.
Used in indigestion and
diarrhoea (after removing tannin
and associated substances by the
process of germination under
earth). Also used in gonorrhoea.
The bark contains –% of tannin.
The stem bark contains friedelin, a triterpenoid,
beta-sitosterol and a mixture
of leucoanthocyanidins (including
leucopelargonidin). Leaves contain
flavonoids— quercetin, quercetin-
The kernels gave fatty acids, including
palmitic, lignoceric and oleic.
HabitatIndigenous to Greece,
Syria and Iran. Yields oak galls.
EnglishOak galls, Aleppo galls,
ActionAstringent. Bark and
fruits—used for eczema and
impetigo. Galls—used for diseases
of gums and oral cavity (diluted
with toothpowder or paste; also as
a gargle in nasal catarrh and sore
throat. An ointment ( in parts
of vaseline) is applied externally in
haemorrhoids. Also included in
breast and vaginal firming creams.
A decoction of galls is used as an
enema in prolapus of rectum.
Key applicationQuercus robur L.
bark—externally, in inflammatory
skin diseases; internally in nonspecific,
acute diarrhoea, and local
treatment of mild inflammation
of the oral cavity and pharyngeal
region, as well as of genital and anal
area. (German Commission E.)
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
recommends the gall in leucorrhoea,
dry and itching vagina; topically
for dental inflammations.
The fruits gave amentoflavone hexamethyl
ether, isocryptomerin and
The alcoholic extract of fruits
showed % liver protection against
carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity
at a dose of mg/kg.
The galls contain –% gallo tannic
acid, gallic acid –%, ellagic acid,
nyctanthic acid, rubric acid, besides
sugars, starch, an essential oil and anthocyanins.
Galls were also found to
contain beta-sitosterol, amentoflavone,
hexamethyl ether and isocryptomerin.
Quercus robur(English or European
oak) is reported to be cultivated in Nilgiris.
The bark contains –% tannins
consisting of phlobatannin, ellagitannins
and gallic acid.
The bark is contraindicated in cardiac
insufficiency and hypertonia; externally
on broken skin. (Sharon M.
DosageGall—– g powder. (API,
Quisqualis indicaLinn. 533
HabitatIndigenous to Chile
and Peru; introduced in India in
EnglishSoap Bark, Quillaia Bark.
Its liquid extract is used as a lotion
for certain skin diseases of the scalp,
and in antiulcer preparations.
The detergent and medicinal properties
of quillaia are due to the presence
of haemolytic saponins (–%) of
which quillaia-saponin (which yields
glucuronic acid and quillaic acid, a sapogenin,
on hydrolysis) ismost important.
Quillaja extracts caused marked
swelling and haemorrhage in stomach
and small intestines of mice after
An isolated saponin (QS-) from
the bark shows evidence that it might
augment both antibody and cell-mediated
immune response, significantly
increasing antibody levels. (NaturalMedicines
HabitatNative to Java and
Malaysia; cultivated in Indian
ActionFruits and seeds—
anthelmintic (particularly against
ascarites and soporific). Seeds—
soporific. Ripe seeds are roasted
and given in diarrhoea and fever.
Macerated in oil, are applied to
parasitic skin diseases. Leaves—
decoction prescribed in abdominal
The leaves and flowers gave rutin
and pelargonidin--glucoside, quisqualic
acid, trigonelline, L-proline and
Quisqualic acid showed anthelmintic
activity. Seeds gave arachidic, linoleic,
oleic, palmitic and stearic acids.