SynonymO. squarrosa Linn.
HabitatAssam, Bihar, Orissa and
Deccan Peninsula. Often cultivated
in parks and gardens.
FolkKanaka Champaa. (Bhuinchampaa,
Root—a decoction is used in
asthma, tuberculosis and in
menstrual disorders. Leaves—
boiled and used as emollient
cataplasm; used as a poultice in
Isoflavones, along with beta-sitosterol
and oleanolic acid, have been isolated
from the heartwood.
A related species,Ochna pumila
Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don., found in
outer Himalayas and sub-Himalayan
tract from Kumaon to Assam, is reported
to exhibit antitubercular activity.
Tetrahydroamentoflavone has been
isolated from the leaves. The plant is
also used for epilepsy in folk medicine.
Bentb. & Hook. f.
Planch. & Triana.
HabitatEvergreen forests of
Western India from Khandala
southwards to Malabar and Coimbatore.
is equated withMesua
stomachic, analgesic, antibacterial;
used for gastritis, haemorrhoids,
blood diseases, leprosy, leucoderma.
Flower buds are popularly known as
Flowers exhibited potent hypotensive,
anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic
activity attributed to vitexin.
Leaves gave amentoflavone, quercetin
and vitexin as major constituents.
SynonymO. caryophyllatum Roxb.
HabitatLower hills of Punjab;
cultivated throughout India.
EnglishSweet Basil, Basil Herb.
444Ocimum canum Sims.
AyurvedicBarbari, Tuvari, Tungi,
Kharpushpa, Ajgandhikaa, Baabui
UnaniFaranjmishk. (also equated
Linn. byNational Formulary of
Unani Medicine.), Raihan (also
equated withO. sanctum). (used as
a substitute for Phanijjaka.)
FolkBana-Tulasi. Sabzaa (Maharashtra).
Juice of the plant—antibacterial.
(Because of high estragole content
of the essential oil, the herb should not
be taken during pregnancy, nursing or
over extended periods of time.) (German
Commission E.) Included among
unapproved herbs byGerman Commission
The herb contains an essential oil;
major constituents are linalool (up to
%) methyl ether (estragole) up to
% and eugenol; caffeic acid derivatives;
flavonoids. Thymol and xanthomicrolwere
isolated fromthe leaves.
Aesculetin,p-coumaric acid, eriodictyol,
its -glucoside and vicenin- from
leaves have been isolated.
The essential oil at concentration
of .% completely inhibited mycelial
growth of twenty two species of fungi,
strains ofAspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus.
Leaves act as an insect repellent
externally; bring relief to insect
bites and stings.
In homoeopathy, the fresh mature
leaves are used to treat haematuria, inflammation
and congestion of kidney.
DosageWhole plant—– ml
decoction; seed—– g powder.
SynonymO. americanum Linn.
HabitatPlains and lower hills of
febrifuge; used in cold, bronchitis,
catarrh, externally in skin diseases.
Essential oil—antifungal. Seeds—
hypoglycaemic; also used in the
treatment of leucorrhoea and other
diseases of urinogenital system.
The essential oil at the flowering
stage contains citral as a major component
along with methylheptenone,
methylnonylketone and camphor.
Leaves yielded beta-sitosterol, betulinic
acid and ursolic acid and flavonoids,
Seeds exhibited antidiabetic activity,
improved glucose tolerance was observed
in diabetic patients who were
Ocimum sanctumLinn. 445
given g seed/day for month, lowering
of fasting plasma glucose level up
to % was also observed.
AyurvedicVriddha Tulasi, Raam-
ActionPlant—used in neurological
and rheumatic affections, in
seminal weakness and in aphthae of
children. Seed—used in cephalalgia
and neuralgia. Essential oil—
Inhomoeopathy, freshmature leaves
are used in constipation, cough, fever,
nasal catarrh; also in gonorrhoea with
A heterotic hybrid 'Clocimum' (polycross
ofgratissimum) has been developed
in India which yields .–
.% essential oil having a eugenol
content up to %. Direct production
of methyl eugenol and eugenol acetate
from 'Clocimum' oil is reported.
Major constituents reported from
'Clocimum' oil are myrcene ., eugenol
., isoeugenol ., methyleugenol
.%; other constituents are
alpha-pinene, limonene, phellandrene,
terpene -ol, alpha-terpineol, carveol,
carvene, geranyl acetate, caryophyllone
and caryophyllone oxide.
(At Regional Research Laboratory,
CSIR, Jammu, a study was conducted
to assess the inheritance pattern of major
chemical constituents of essential
oils in hybrids produced by interspecific
as well as intraspecific crosses of
SynonymO. camphora Guerke.
HabitatNative of Kenya. Cultivated
on a small scale in West Bengal,
Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,
Kerala and Dehr Dun.
antibacterial. Decamphorized oil—
insecticidal, mosquito repellent.
Essential oil contains camphor, pinene,
limonene, terpinolene, myrcene,
beta-phellandrene, linalool, camphene,
p-cymene, borneol and alpha-selinene.
The Camphor content varies in different
samples from to .%.
SynonymO. tenuiflorum Linn.
HabitatThroughout India; grown
in houses, gardens and temples.
EnglishHoly Basil, Sacred Basil.
AyurvedicTulasi, Surasaa, Surasa,
Bhuutaghni, Suravalli, Sulabhaa,
Manjarikaa, Bahumanjari, DevaO
446Ocimum viride Willd.
dundubhi, Apet-raakshasi, Shuulaghni,
antirheumatic, expectorant, stimulant,
antipyretic and diaphoretic. Seed—
used in genitourinary diseases.
antistress. Essential oil—
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
recommends the use of the leaf and
seed in rhinitis and influenza; the seed
in psychological disorders, including
fear-psychosis and obsessions.
Major components of the essential
oil are eugenol, carvacrol, nerol and
eugenolmethylether. Leaves have been
reported to contain ursolic acid, apigenin,
Ursolic acid, isolated from leaves,
exhibited significant protection of mast
cell membrane by preventing granulation
and decreased histamine release.
The ethanolic extract (%) of fresh
leaves, volatile oil fromfresh leaves and
fixed oil from seeds showed antiasthmatic
activity and significantly protected
guinea-pigs against histamine
and dyspnoea.They also showed antiinflammatory
activity against carrageenan-,
serotonin-, histamine- and
PGE--induced inflammation and inhibited
hind paw oedema in rats.
The ethanol extract (%) of the
leaves showed hepatoprotective effect
against paracetamol-induced liver
The plant extract exhibited antiulcerogenic
property against experimental
Oral administration of alcoholic extract
of leaves lowers blood sugar level
in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic
and streptozotocin-induced diabetic
rats. The activity of the extract was
. and .%of that of tolbutamide
in normal and diabetic rats respectively.
Administration of the juice of the
plant affected a significant reduction
in the size of urinary brushite crystals.
A study of methanol extract and
aqueous suspension of the leaves
showed immunostimulation of humoral
immunologic response in albino
rats indicating the adaptogenic action
of the plant.
DosageSeed—– g powder (API,
Vol. IV); plant—– ml infusion
HabitatNative to Africa; introduced
EnglishFever plant of Sierra Leone.
FolkTaap-maari Tulasi (Maharashtra).
as a remedy for coughs and fevers.
Ocimumviridespecies, cultivated in
Jammu-Tawi, gives maximum oil yield
Olax scandensRoxb. 447
(.%) at full bloom stage and highest
percentage of thymol (.%) in the
oil, which can be used as a substitute
for thyme-ajowan oil.
Oenanthe javanica(Blume) DC.
SynonymO. stolinifera Wall. ex
HabitatMarshy places and river
banks in North India from Kashmir
FolkJateraa (Meghalaya); Panturasi
ActionThe plant extract showed
strong antimutagenic and antitumour
Fromtheherb, beta-sitosteryl glucoside,
stigmasteryl glucoside, isorhamnetin
and hyperin were isolated. The
fruit yield .% of an essential oil, containing
phellandrene and myristicin.
HabitatNative to Chile; cultivated
as a garden plant in South Australia.
Introduced into Indian gardens.
EnglishEvening Primrose (var.);
ActionOil from seeds—prescribed
for eczema (in children); premenstrual
syndrome and cyclical breast
Linalool (.%) was determined in
the flower oil.
Evening Primrose is equated with
Oenothera biennisL. (native to North
America). The oil from seeds, known
asEvening Primrose oil, contains about
%cis-linolenic acid and about %
cis-gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Evening
Primrose oil is one of the most
widely prescribed plant-derived medicines
in the world. Sold under the
trade name Epogam, it is recognized
by the governments of Great Britain,
Germany, Denmark, Ireland, Spain,
Greece, South Africa, Australia and
NewZealandas a treatment for eczema.
A combination, known as Efamol Marine,
used for eczema, contains %
Evening Primrose Oil and % fish oil.
Evening Primrose Oil has become
a frontline treatment in Great Britain
for initial treatment of cyclical breast
pain and fibrocystic breast disease.
HabitatSub-Himalayas tract of
Kumaon and Bihar, Orissa, Madhya
Pradesh, Deccan and Western
ActionBark—used in anaemia and
as a supporting drug in diabetes;
also in the treatment of fever.
448Oldenlandia umbellata Linn.
HabitatBihar, Orissa, Travancore.
Cultivated on the Coromandel
ActionLeaves and roots—used in
bronchitis, asthma, consumption.
The plant gave anthraquinone derivatives.
The root gave alizarin, rubichloric
acid and ruberythric acid, also
anthraquinones. Purpurin, pupuroxanthin
carboxylic acid, present in
Madder (Rubia tinctorum), are almost
HabitatNative of Mediterranean
region; cultivated in Jammu and
Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
ActionLeaves and bark—
febrifugal, astringent, diuretic,
Oil—preparations are used for cholangiitis,
icterus, flatulence, meteorism, lack of
bacteria in the intestines. Demulcent
and mild laxative. Externally used
for wound dressing and for minor
burns, psoriasis and pruritus. (Included
among unapproved herbs by
German Commission E.)
Chemical investigations of two varieties—
Ascotrinia and Ascolina—
grown in Jammu region have shown
that the characteristics of fruits and
their oils are similar to those of European
Leaves ofOlea europaea gave iridoid
monoterpenes including oleuropein
and oleuroside; triterpenes including
oleanolic and maslinic acids;
flavonoids including luteolin and apigenine
derivatives. The oil contains
glycerides of oleic acid about –%,
with smaller amounts of linoleic, palmitic
and stearic acid glycerides.
The leaves exhibited hypotensive,
antiarrhythmic and spasmolytic activities
in animal studies. The oil exhibited
contraction of gallbladder due to
raising of the cholecystokinin level in
India's requirements of olive oil are
met by imports.
HabitatKashmir and Kumaon.
UnaniGaozabaan (related species).
ActionCooling, astringent, diuretic,
cardiac tonic. Used for cold,
Operculina turpethum(Linn.) SilvaManso. 449
cough, bronchial affections; insomnia,
depression, mental exhaustion;
constipation, misperistalsis, jaundice;
dysuria, urethral discharges;
The name Gaozaban is applied to
six different plants, belonging to five
genera. According toTheWealth of India,
Gaozaban is derived not from this
plant but fromAnchusa strigosa Labill,
which occurs in Iran. Kashmiri Gaozaban
is derived fromMacrotomia benthamii.
Coccinia glaucais also used as
Borage has been equated withBorago
DosageDried leaves and stems,
flowers—– g powder.
C. B. Clarke non Linn.
Wall. ex D. Don.
HabitatKashmir and Kumaon up
to ,–, m.
UnaniRatanjot (equated with
Onosma echioidesLinn., according
toNational Formularly of Unani
ActionAstringent and styptic.
Root—bruised and used as application
to eruptions. An ingredient
of ointments for ulcers, scrofula,
burns. Flowers—stimulant, cardiac
Ursolic acid and naphthoquinones,
onosone A and B have been isolated
from the root. Shikonin acetate
is obtained from callus cultures of the
The species, distributed in western
Himalayas, isOnosma echioides C. B.
Clarke non Linn.;Onosma echioides
Linn. is an European species. A variety
of this species, var.kashmiricum
Johnson, is found in Kashmir.Onosma
hookeriC. B. Clarke occurs in Sikkim
Maharanga emodi(Wall.) DC., synonym
Onosma emodi(Wall.) DC. (the
Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan
at altitudes of ,–, m) is also
known as Ratanjot and Shankhuli.
(Ratanjot is used in a generic sense
to cover a range of red dye-yielding
roots, rather than the root of a single
species. As many as plant species
belonging to four different families are
known as Ratanjot; five of themdo not
yield red dye. General properties and
colour reactions attributed to Ratanjot
resemble Alkanet fromAlkanna tinctoria
(Linn.) Silva Manso.
SynonymIpomoea turpethum R.
HabitatThroughout India up to
, m; occasionally grown in
EnglishIndian Jalap, Turpeth.
AyurvedicTrivrta, Trivrtaa, Tribhandi,
Triputaa, Saralaa, Suvahaa,
450Ophioglossum vulgatum Linn.
Rechani, Nishotra, Kumbha, Kaalaa,
(particularly used in
rheumatic and paralytic affections;
also in fevers, oedema, hepatic and
White Turpeth is preferred to Black
Turpeth as cathartic; the latter produces
drastic purgation and causes
vomiting, fainting and giddiness.
White Turpeth is derived fromMarsdenia
tenacissimain folk medicine.
The active principle ofO. turpethum
is a glycosidic resin present in the drug
up to %. It is similar to jalap resin and
is concentrated mostly in the root bark.
It contains an ether insoluble glycoside,
turpethin, which constitutes about half
of the resin and two ether soluble glycosides,
alpha-and beta-turpethein (
and % respectively).
DosageRoot—– g powder. (API,
HabitatMoist meadows in Great
Britain. Found in the Himalayas,
Bihar, Assam, Pune (Maharashtra),
Annamalai and Shevaroy hills
(South India); up to an altitude of
EnglishEnglish Adder's Tongue.
vulnerary, detergent, emetic.
The mucilaginous and astringent
decoction of the fern is used in
angina in Reunion. An ointment,
prepared by boiling the herb in oil
or fat, is used for wounds.
Ophioglossum pendulumL. (Assam)
is used in the form of a scalp ointment
for improving the hair growth.
American Adder's Tongue is equated
withErythronium americanum Ker-
Gawl (Liliaceae). The fresh leaves gave
HabitatKhasi Hills up to –
m, in Western Ghats and the
is a wrong synonym. It is
equated withAristolochia indica.)
ActionRoot—bitter tonic. Leaves—
used for dressing ulcers.
The roots contain starch, a resin
and small amounts of a bitter amorphous
alkaloid. Beta-sitosterol, -
alpha-ergost--en--beta-ol and -
alpha-ergost- ()-en- beta-ol (as
an ester) have been identified in the
root. Leaves and stems contain traces
of hydrocyanic acid.
Opuntia vulgarisMill. 451
HabitatIndian gardens. Introduced
into India towards the end of the
EnglishCochineal Cactus. (A host
for cochineal insect,Dactylopius
Mucilaginous joints—used as
poultices in cases of articular
rheumatism, inflammations, scalds,
burns and skin diseases.
Opuntia dillenii(Ker-Gawl.) Haw.
SynonymO. stricta Haw. var.
HabitatNative of Mexico; wellacclimatized
EnglishPrickly Pear, SlipperThorn.
poultice to allay inflammation and
heat. Fruit—baked and given in
Dried or fresh flowers of cactus (opuntia
series)—astringent and haemostatic.
An infusion is given in irritable
bowel, mucous colitis, and prostatitis.
Ash of the aerial portion, mixed with
sugar candy, is given for days for
birth control in tribal areas of Andhra
ThePlant is recommended for growing
in high pollution zones for abating
sulphur dioxide pollution.
Pods contain a polysaccharide, arbinogalactan.
Betanin has been isolated
fromripe fruits. Flowers contain the
glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin,
with smal amounts of the free
Opuntia ficus-indica(Linn.) Mill.,
known as Prickly Pear or Indian Fig,
is a spineless cactus, mostly cultivated
in Indian gardens. Ripe fruits are nutritious.
Flowers are astringent and reduce
bleeding; used for diarrhoea and
irritable bowel syndrome; also for enlarged
prostate. The flower decoction
exhibits a strong diuretic effect.
The cladodes are used as a topical
anti-inflammatory remedy for oedemata
and arthrosis, as regulators of
smooth muscles in the treatment of
whooping cough and as anti-infective
The stem or their crude preparations
showed hypoglycaemic effect in
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
patients (irrespective of its being
heated or blended during preparation).
Neobetanin (,-dehydro betanin)
is the major constituent in the fruit.
HabitatThroughout the greater
part of India.
452Orchis latifolia Linn.
ActionIn homoeopathy, a tincture
made from the flowers and
wood, is given for diarrhoea and
The fresh stalks yielded calcium
magnesium pectate which exhibited
antihaemorrhagic action. A flavonoside
has been obtained from dried
flowers. It resembles rutoside in its
action of inhibiting capillary fragility.
trihydroxy-methoxy-flavonol and glucose.
The plant is reported to contain
an alkaloid. It also yields a mucilage
which gives arabinose and galactose.
HabitatKashmir to Nepal at
altitudes of ,–, m in damp
campestrisWall. is also equated with
and nervine tonic by Unani
demulcent, restorative. Given
to convalescents suffering from
chronic diarrhoea and bilious
fevers. Allays irritation of gastrointestinal
Orchis species (Salep) contain mucilage
(up to %)–glucans, glucomannans
(partially acetylized), starch
(%), proteins (–%).
The leaves of Orchis latifolia contain
a glucoside, loroglossin. Most of
the Salep used in Unani medicine is
imported from Iran and Afghanistan.
Allium macleaniiBaker (Afghanistan)
is known as Baadashaahi (royal)
Saalab, and is used as a substitute
DosageTuber—– g powder.
HabitatNative to Europe and Great
EnglishSweet Marjoram. (Origanum
vulgareLinn., Wild Marjoram,
occurs in Simla hills and in
Phanijjaka. (Ocimum basilicum
is used as a substitute for Phanijjaka.)
FolkMaruae. Santhraa. Jangali
Maruaa (Origanum vulgare Linn.).
Oroxylum indicumVent. 453
Leaves and seed—
Warm infusion of herb—promotes
The herb contains about % volatile
oil comprising sabinene hydrate, sabinene,
linalool, carvacrol, estrogole,
eugenol and terpenes; flavonoids including
rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid; and
triterpenoids such as ursolic acid, oleanolic
Marjoram herb and oil exhibit antibacterial
action. (German Commission
E.) The herb contains arbutin
and hydroxyquinone (a carcinogenic
agent) in low concentrations. The herb
is not suited for extended use. Topical
application of hydroxyquinone leads
to depigmentation of the skin. There is
no reports of similar side effects with
marjoram ointment. (German Commission
contains volatile oilwith a widely
varying composition; major components
include thymol, beta-bisabolene,
caryophyllene, linalool and borneol;
other constituents are similar to those
The leaves of Wild Marjoram contain
phenolic acids. The phenyl propionic
acid and the phenyl glucoside
showed antioxidant activity comparable
to that of BHA, a synthetic antioxidant.
Wild Marjoram preparations are
used for bronchial catarrh and disturbances
of the gastrointestinal tract
in Unani medicine.
Sweet Marjoram shows stronger effect
on the nervous system than Wild
Marjoram and gives better results in
anxiety, headaches and insomnia.
Both the species have been included
among unapproved herbs byGerman
HabitatThroughout the greater
part of India.
EnglishIndian Trumpet Flower.
Patrorna, Bhalluka, Prthushimba,
stomachic, spasmolytic. Seed—
purgative. Root bark—astringent,
antidiarrhoeal. Used for amoebic
The leaves contained flavones and
their glycosides including baicalein
and scutellarein; also anthraquinone,
aloe-emodin. Bark of the root gave
chrysin, baicalein and oroxylinA. Bark
also gave dihydrobaicalein. Heartwood
yielded beta-sitosterol and an
DosageRoot—– g powder; –
g for decoction. (API, Vol. III.)
454Orthosiphon grandiflorus Boldingh.
SynonymO. aristatus (Blume)Miq.
O. spiralis(Linn.) Merrill
HabitatManipur, Naga and Lushai
hills, Chota Nagpur,Western Ghats.
EnglishKidney Tea Plant, Java Tea.
in nephrosis and severe cases of
oedema. An infusion of leaves is
givenas a specific in the treatment of
various kidney and bladder diseases
including nephrocirrhosis and
phosphaturia, also in rheumatism
Key applicationIn irrigation
therapy for bacterial and inflammatory
diseases of the lower urinary
tract and renal gravel. (German
Flower tops and leaves (samples
from Indonesia) contained methyl ripariochromene
A. In another sample,
leaves also yielded several phenolic
compounds including lipophilic
flavones, flavonol glycosides and caffeic
acid derivatives. Rosmarinic acid
and ,-dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid (%
of total phenolics, .% in hot water
extract) were major compounds of
caffeic acid derivatives.
The leaves also contain a high percentage
(.–.) of potassium salts.
Presence of orthosiphonin and potassium
salts help in keeping uric acid and
urate salts in solution, thus prevents
calculi and other deposits. The leaf extract
lowers blood sugar in diabetics,
but not consistently.
Orthosiphon pallidusRoyle, equated
with the Ayurvedic herb Arjaka and
Shveta-Kutherak and known as Ajagur
andNaganda-baavari in folkmedicine,
is used for dysuria and colic.
var.glabratus Hook. f.
SynonymO. glabratus Benth.
HabitatOrissa, Gujarat, South
India, ascending up to , m in
FolkTulasi (var.), Kattu-thrithava
ActionPlant—a decoction is
given in diarrhoea. Leaves—applied
externally to cuts and wounds.
HabitatCultivated all over India as
a food crop.
Osmanthus fragransLour. 455
ActionRice-water (a water
decoction of rice)—demulcent
and refrigerant in febrile and
inflammatory diseases and in
dysuria. Also used as a vehicle
for compound preparations used
for gynaecological disorders. It is
regarded as cooling in haematemesis
and epistaxis, and as diuretic.
The green clum or stalks—recommended
in biliousness. Ash of the
straw—used in the treatment of
wounds and discharges. Lixiviated ash
of straw is used as anthelmintic and in
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India
recommends the dried root in dysuria
and lactic disorders.
The pigments occurring in coloured
types of rice are amixture of monoglycosides
of cyanidin and delphinidin.
The dark Puttu Rice of India contains
a diglycosidic anthocyanin.
DosageRoot— g for decoction.
(API, Vol. II.)
HabitatThe Himalayas from
Garhwal to Bhutan, North Bengal,
Bihar and Khasi, Aka and Lushai
The plant contains the flavonoids,
quercetin, kaempferol and hydrolysable
tannins, besides gallic acid, methyl
gallate and ellagic acid.
The flavonoids and tannins showed
antioxidant activity. Ellagic acid suppressed
increase in lipid peroxidation
induced by CCl and Cobalt- irradiation
and this effect was more
than that of alpha-tocopherol. Gallic
acid showed anti-inflammatory activity
against zymosan-induced acute
footpad swelling in mice.
HabitatNative to China and Japan.
Found in Kumaon, Garhwal and
AyurvedicVasuka (Also equated
with Brihat Bakula.)
FolkSilang, Silingi, Bagahul, Buuk.
Used for protecting clothes from insects.
The flowers yield an oil containing
oleanolic and urosolic acids, betasitosterol,
glycosides and awax (.%)
composed mainly of triacontane. The
leaves are reported to contain a phillyrin-
Osmanthus suavisKing, known as
Silingi in Nepal and Chashing in Bhutan,
is found in eastern Himalayas at
altitudes of ,–, m and in Aka
hills in Assam. It is used as a var. of
DosageFlower— mg to g
456Osmunda regalis Linn.
HabitatThe Himalayas, Khasi hills
and the Western Ghats at altitudes
of ,–, m.
astringent, an aqueous extract is
administered for intestinal gripe;
used externally in rheumatism; also
prescribed in muscular debility.
Fonds enter into diuretic drinks
used for treating body swellings.
The rhizomes contain phenolic, gallic,
caffeic,p-coumaric, vanillic, salicylic,
p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic
acids and catechol tannins (.%)
which are responsible for fern's astringent
activity. Biological activity of
these tannins corresponds to that of
% tannic acid.
Osyris wightianaWall. ex Wight.
SynonymO. arborea Wall. ex DC.
O. quadriparitaSalzm. ex Decne.
Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
FolkPopli (Maharashtra); Paral
(Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Jhuri
(Nepal); Dalmi, Dalmia (Garhwal,
The leaf contains %tannin. It gave
cis--hydroxy-L-proline, and exhibited
The heartwood is faintly fragrant
and reported to be used for adulterating
HabitatOuter Himalayas and
sub-Himalayan tract from Jammu
to Bhutan up to an altitude of
, m, and extending through the
whole of northern and central India
into the greater part of Deccan
EnglishChariot tree, Punjab Kino.
Syandana, Nemi, Sarvasaara,
Ashmagarbhaka, Vajjala, Chitrakrt.
Theleaves and heartwood contained
and urgenin. Leaves, in addition,
kaempferol and leucopelargonidin.
Stem bark gave triterpenes, lupeol and
Oxyria digyna(L.) Hill. 457
from Kashmir to Sikkim from ,
to , m and Nilgiris in Tamil
ActionDiuretic and refrigerant.
Used for urinary affections and
fevers. (Sorrel is equated with
Aerial parts gave -O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)
isovitexin. The whole
flowering plant contains .–.%
oxalic acid (high in fresh leaves and
HabitatThroughout the warmer
parts of India.
UnaniAmbutaa bhaaji, Amutaa
ActionPlant—boiled with butter
milk is a home remedy for indigestion
and diarrhoea in children.
Used for tympanitis, dyspepsia,
biliousness and dysentery; also for
its anti-inflammatory, analgesic,
antipyretic and antiscorbutic activities.
Leaf paste is applied over
forehead to cure headache.
The leaves contain the flavonoids,
vitexin, isovitexin and vitexin--Obeta-
D-glucopyranoside. The leaves
contain .% of lipid (dry weight),
a rich source of essential fatty acids
and alpha-and beta-tocopherol (.
and . mg/g dry basis, respectively.)
They are a good source of vitamin C
(mg/ g), carotene (.mg/ g)
and calcium (.% of drymaterial) but
contain a high content of oxalates (%
of dry material).
The leaves and stem contain tartaric
and citric acid; stems contain also
An aqueous extract of the plant
shows activity againstMicrococcus pyogenes
var.aureus. Expressed juice of
the entire plant shows activity against
Oxalis martianaZucc. (native to
America, naturalized in moist and
shady placaes in temperate parts of
India) is equated with Wood-Sorrel. It
is known as Khatmitthi in Delhi and
Peria-puliyarai in Tamil Nadu.
DosageWhole plant—– ml
juice. (API, Vol. III.)
Oxyria digyna(L.) Hill.
HabitatThe Himalayas from
Kashmir to Sikkim, in the alpine
region at altitudes of ,–,m.
FolkChohahak, Amlu (Punjab).
458Oxystelma secamone (Linn.) Karst.
SynonymO. esculentum R. Br.
plains and lower hills of India,
including paddy fields
and hedges rear semi-marshy
FolkUsipallai (Tamil Nadu);
Dugdhani (Maharashtra); Jaladudhi
galactogogue; decoction used
as a gargle in stomatitis and sore
throat. Latex—vulnerary. Fresh
root—prescribed in jaundice.
A pregnane ester oligoglycoside
(oxysine), a pregnane triglycoside (esculentin),
a cardenolide (oxyline), two
more cardenolides, oxystelmoside and
oxystelmine, have been isolated from